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Links from Protein

Items: 1 to 20 of 317

1.

Apelin signaling pathway

Apelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1492886
KEGG
: hsa04371
2.

Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation

Immunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided by antigen presenting cells (APC) and include T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2. Th1 cells...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Endocrine resistance

Endocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen), estrogen synthesis inhibitors (e.g. aromatase inhibitors (AIs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

TNF signaling pathway

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF is assembled to a homotrimer and binds to its receptors (TNFR1, TNFR2) resulting...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Notch signaling pathway

The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved, intercellular signaling mechanism essential for proper embryonic development in all metazoan organisms in the Animal kingdom. The Notch proteins (Notch1-Notch4 in vertebrates) are single-pass receptors that are activated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

NOTCH2 Activation and Transmission of Signal to the Nucleus

Similar to NOTCH1, NOTCH2 is activated by Delta-like and Jagged ligands (DLL/JAG) expressed in trans on a neighboring cell (Shimizu et al. 1999, Shimizu et al. 2000, Hicks et al. 2000, Ji et al. 2004). The activation triggers cleavage of NOTCH2, first by ADAM10 at the S2 cleavage...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Activated NOTCH1 Transmits Signal to the Nucleus

Mature NOTCH1 heterodimer on the cell surface is activated by one of its ligands: DLL1 (Cordle et al. 2008, Jarriault et al. 1998), DLL4 (Benedito et al. 2009), JAG1 (Li et al. 1998, Benedito et al. 2009) or JAG2 (Luo et al. 1997, Shimizu et al. 2000), expressed in trans on a neighboring...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 HD+PEST Domain Mutants

When found in cis, HD and PEST domain mutations act synergistically, increasing NOTCH1 transcriptional activity up to ~40-fold, compared with up to ~10-fold and up to ~2-fold increase with HD mutations alone and PEST domain mutations alone, respectively (Weng et al. 2004). HD domain...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 PEST Domain Mutants

As NOTCH1 PEST domain is intracellular, NOTCH1 PEST domain mutants are expected to behave as the wild-type NOTCH1 with respect to ligand binding and proteolytic cleavage mediated activation of signaling. However, once the NICD1 fragment of NOTCH1 is released, PEST domain mutations...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 HD Domain Mutants

The heterodimerization (HD) domain of NOTCH1, responsible for association of NOTCH1 extracellular and transmembrane regions after furin-mediated cleavage of NOTCH1 precursor, is one of the hotspots for gain-of-function NOTCH1 mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 t(7;9)(NOTCH1:M1580_K2555) Translocation Mutant

NOTCH1 t(7;9)(NOTCH1:M1580_K2555) mutant is expressed in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. This mutant protein results from a translocation that joins a portion of intron 24 of the NOTCH1 gene to the promoter sequence of T-cell receptor beta (TCRB),...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation

Immunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided by antigen presenting cells (APC) and include T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2. Th1 cells...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
14.

Canonical and Non-canonical Notch signaling

This pathway is based on figure 1 of "Alteration of Notch signaling in skeletal development and disease" (see bibliography). In the NOTCH signaling pathway, mammals have 11 ligands (JAG, DLL, DLK, etc.) and 4 NOTCH receptors (NOTCH1,2,3,4). The pathway is activated by the interaction...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
15.

Amplification and Expansion of Oncogenic Pathways as Metastatic Traits

This pathway is based on Figure 4 of "Origins of metastatic traits."(See Bibliography).The majority of cancer cells released from tumors die off, so cancer biologists are trying to figure out exactly what gives certain cells the ability to colonize other distant organs. Specific genes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
16.

NOTCH1 regulation of human endothelial cell calcification

Model of NOTCH1 regulation of human endothelial cell calcification.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
17.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
18.

Endocrine resistance

Endocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen), estrogen synthesis inhibitors (e.g. aromatase inhibitors (AIs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
19.

Signaling by NOTCH4

Similar to NOTCH1, NOTCH4 is activated by delta-like and jagged ligands (DLL/JAG) expressed in trans on a neighboring cell. The activation triggers cleavage of NOTCH4, first by ADAM10 at the S2 cleavage site, then by gamma-secretase at the S3 cleavage site, resulting in the release...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Signaling by NOTCH3

Similar to NOTCH1, NOTCH3 is activated by delta-like and jagged ligands (DLL/JAG) expressed in trans on a neighboring cell. The activation triggers cleavage of NOTCH3, first by ADAM10 at the S2 cleavage site, then by gamma-secretase at the S3 cleavage site, resulting in the release...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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