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Links from Protein

Items: 1 to 20 of 338

1.

AMPK signaling pathway

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and converted into a covalently closed circular molecule cccDNA. The cccDNA is the template...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
694606
KEGG
: hsa05161
3.

Viral carcinogenesis

There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Epstein-Barr virus infection

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells, causing infectious mononucleosis during adolescence. Primary infection...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation

Xenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division cycles and maturation of the oocyte into a mature, fertilizable egg. This process is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Cell cycle

Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Ub-specific processing proteases

Ub-specific processing proteases (USPs) are the largest of the DUB families with more than 50 members in humans. The USP catalytic domain varies considerably in size and consists of six conserved motifs with N- or C-terminal extensions and insertions occurring between the conserved...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Regulation of TP53 Activity through Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation of TP53 (p53) at the N-terminal serine residues S15 and S20 plays a critical role in protein stabilization as phosphorylation at these sites interferes with binding of the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 to TP53. Several different kinases can phosphorylate TP53 at S15 and S20....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Regulation of TP53 Degradation

In unstressed cells, TP53 (p53) has a short half-life as it undergoes rapid ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, which is a transcriptional target of TP53, plays the main role in TP53 protein down-regulation (Wu et al. 1993). MDM2 forms...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

TP53 Regulates Transcription of Genes Involved in G1 Cell Cycle Arrest

The most prominent TP53 target involved in G1 arrest is the inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases CDKN1A (p21). CDKN1A is one of the earliest genes induced by TP53 (El-Deiry et al. 1993). CDKN1A binds and inactivates CDK2 in complex with cyclin A (CCNA) or E (CCNE), thus preventing...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Processing of DNA double-strand break ends

Homology directed repair (HDR) through homologous recombination (HRR) or single strand annealing (SSA) requires extensive resection of DNA double strand break (DSB) ends (Thompson and Limoli 2003, Ciccia and Elledge 2010). The resection is performed in a two-step process, where the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)

The culture medium of senescent cells in enriched in secreted proteins when compared with the culture medium of quiescent i.e. presenescent cells and these secreted proteins constitute the so-called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), also known as the senescence messaging...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Cdc20:Phospho-APC/C mediated degradation of Cyclin A

Cyclin A, functions in mitosis as well as DNA replication and is degraded in the interim by the APC/C to permit normal chromosome segregation, cell division, and the onset of S phase (see Lukas and Bartek, 2004). Cyclin A is initially degraded early in mitosis by APC/C:Cdc20 when...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the G2/M transition by Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes

Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes are detected in the nucleus earlier that cyclin B1:Cdc2 complexes and may play a role in the initial events in prophase. Inactivation of Cdc25B by proteasome-mediated degradation is dependent upon cyclin A:Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation (Cans et al, 1999)

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21

During G1, the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is kept in check by the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p27 and p21, thereby preventing premature entry into S phase (see Guardavaccaro and Pagano, 2006). These two CKIs are degraded in late G1 phase by the ubiquitin pathway (Pagano...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Cell cycle - G2/M transition

Functional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling

Type
:
functional_set
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1084769
KEGG
: hsa_M00693
17.

Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling.

Photodynamic therapy may induce an acute stress response mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), its downstream MAPKs that target c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, MAPK8) and p38MAPK, and the transcription factors of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) famil...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
18.

Deubiquitination

Ubiquitination, the modification of proteins by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin (Ub), is a key regulatory mechanism for many many cellular processes, including protein degradation by the 26S proteasome. Ub conjugates linked via lysine 48 (K48) target substrates to the proteasome,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Regulation of TP53 Expression and Degradation

TP53 (p53) tumor suppressor protein is a transcription factor that functions as a homotetramer (Jeffrey et al. 1995). The protein levels of TP53 are low in unstressed cells due to MDM2-mediated ubiquitination that triggers proteasome-mediated degradation of TP53 (Wu et al. 1993)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Regulation of TP53 Activity

Protein stability and transcriptional activity of TP53 (p53) tumor suppressor are regulated by post-translational modifications that include ubiquitination, phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, sumoylation and prolyl-isomerization (Kruse and Gu 2009, Meek and Anderson 2009,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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