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Links from Nucleotide

Items: 1 to 20 of 205

1.

intracellular vesicle

Any vesicle that is part of the intracellular region.

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1384516
GO
: GO:0097708
2.

secretory vesicle

A cytoplasmic, membrane bound vesicle that is capable of fusing to the plasma membrane to release its contents into the extracellular space.

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1346976
GO
: GO:0099503
3.

Degradation of the extracellular matrix

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), previously referred to as matrixins because of their role in degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), are zinc and calcium dependent proteases belonging to the metzincin family. They contain a characteristic zinc-binding motif HEXXHXXGXXH (Stocker...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Extracellular matrix organization

The extracellular matrix is a component of all mammalian tissues, a network consisting largely of the fibrous proteins collagen, elastin and associated-microfibrils, fibronectin and laminins embedded in a viscoelastic gel of anionic proteoglycan polymers. It performs many functions...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

HDL-mediated lipid transport

HDL particles play a central role in the reverse transport of cholesterol, the process by which cholesterol in tissues other than the liver is returned to the liver for conversion to bile salts and excretion from the body and provided to tissues such as the adrenals and gonads for...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Lipoprotein metabolism

Because of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport dietary lipids to other tissues in the body. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport

Processes annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids through the action of hormone-sensitive lipase.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins

Lipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphingolipids, eicosanoids, cholesterol, bile salts, steroid hormones, and fat-soluble...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Metabolism

Metabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as the inactivation and elimination of toxic ones generated endogenously or present in...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Rho GTPase cycle

The cycling of Rho GTPases is tightly controlled by three classes of protein. These are (1) guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors or GDIs, which maintain Rho proteins in an inactive state in the cytoplasm, (2) guanine nucleotide exchange factors or GEFs, which destabilize the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Signaling by Rho GTPases

The Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as binary switches controlling a variety of biological processes. They perform this function...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Signal Transduction

Signal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such as hormones and growth factors, or reacting to other types of stimuli, such as light....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Intrinsic Pathway of Fibrin Clot Formation

The intrinsic pathway of blood clotting connects interactions among kininogen (high molecular weight kininogen, HK), prekallikrein (PK), and factor XII to the activation of clotting factor X by a series of reactions that is independent of the extrinsic pathway and that is not subject...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade)

The formation of a fibrin clot at the site of an injury to the wall of a normal blood vessel is an essential part of the process to stop blood loss after vascular injury. The reactions that lead to fibrin clot formation are commonly described as a cascade, in which the product of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Platelet degranulation

Platelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules, dense granules and lysosomes. On activation platelets release a variety of proteins,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+

Activation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium and activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC). Phospholipase C cleaves the phosphodiester...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation

Platelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the platelet membrane (Ruggeri 2002). Intracellular signaling reactions then enhance the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Hemostasis

Hemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses coagulation, enhances fibrin cleavage and is anti-inflammatory...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

molecular function regulator

A molecular function that modulates the activity of a gene product or complex. Examples include enzyme regulators and channel regulators.

Type
:
functional_set
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1133933
GO
: GO:0098772
20.

extracellular vesicle

Any vesicle that is part of the extracellular region. Synonym: microparticle;

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1129387
GO
: GO:1903561

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