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biosynthesis of serotonin and melatonin

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that regulates sleep, anxiety, alcoholism, drug abuse, food intake, and sexual behavior . In the central nervous system tryptophan hydroxylase 2 is a rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis . On the other hand, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of "peripheral" serotonin, which is believed to act as a mitogen . Circulating maternal serotonin is important for normal embryonic development in mice . Melatonin is a "circadian rhythm" hormone regulating a number of different functions . It is synthesized in pineal gland in the same pathway as serotonin, by sequential action of serotonin N-acetyltransferase and acetylserotonin methyltransferase enzymes. A number of inbred strains of mice, including C57BL/6J, lack one or both of these enzymes due to mutations in corresponding genes and are unable to synthesize melatonin .

from BIOCYC source record: MOUSE_PWY3DJ-5
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
organism-specific biosystem
Mus musculus

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