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Links from Protein

Items: 1 to 20 of 884

1.

Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation

Immunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided by antigen presenting cells (APC) and include T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2. Th1 cells...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Endocrine resistance

Endocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen), estrogen synthesis inhibitors (e.g. aromatase inhibitors (AIs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Thyroid hormone signaling pathway

The thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) and T3 enter the cell through transporter proteins. Although the major form of TH in...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

MicroRNAs in cancer

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or the inhibition of protein translation. Using high-throughput profiling, dysregulation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Prion diseases

Prion diseases, also termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a number of other animal species. The etiology of these diseases is thought to be associated with the conversion of a normal protein,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Notch signaling pathway

The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved, intercellular signaling mechanism essential for proper embryonic development in all metazoan organisms in the Animal kingdom. The Notch proteins (Notch1-Notch4 in vertebrates) are single-pass receptors that are activated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Defective LFNG causes SCDO3

The Fringe family (CAZy family GT31) of glycosyltransferases in mammals includes LFNG (lunatic fringe; MIM:602576), MFNG (manic fringe; MIM:602577) and RFNG (radical fringe; MIM:602578). Fringe enzymes function in the Golgi apparatus where they initiate the elongation of O-linked...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Regulation of gene expression in late stage (branching morphogenesis) pancreatic bud precursor cells

The properties of transcriptional networks in late stage (branching morphogenesis) pancreatic bud precursor cells are inferred from the properties of well-studied networks in mouse models. In mice, committed but undifferentiated epithelial cells are organized into branching ductal...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Notch-HLH transcription pathway

THE NOTCH-HLH TRANSCRIPTION PATHWAY: Notch signaling was first identified in Drosophila, where it has been studied in detail at the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cellular levels (reviewed in Justice, 2002; Bray, 2006; Schweisguth, 2004; Louvri, 2006). In Drosophila, Notch...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

NOTCH1 Intracellular Domain Regulates Transcription

NICD1 produced by activation of NOTCH1 in response to Delta and Jagged ligands (DLL/JAG) presented in trans, traffics to the nucleus where it acts as a transcription regulator. In the nucleus, NICD1 displaces the NCOR corepressor complex from RBPJ (CSL). When bound to the co-repressor...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Activated NOTCH1 Transmits Signal to the Nucleus

Mature NOTCH1 heterodimer on the cell surface is activated by one of its ligands: DLL1 (Cordle et al. 2008, Jarriault et al. 1998), DLL4 (Benedito et al. 2009), JAG1 (Li et al. 1998, Benedito et al. 2009) or JAG2 (Luo et al. 1997, Shimizu et al. 2000), expressed in trans on a neighboring...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Pre-NOTCH Processing in Golgi

NOTCH undergoes final posttranslational processing in the Golgi apparatus (Lardelli et al. 1994, Blaumueller et al. 1997, Weinmaster et al. 1991, Weinmaster et al. 1992, Uyttendaele et al. 1996). Movement of NOTCH precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi is controlled by...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Pre-NOTCH Processing in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

In the endoplasmic reticulum, glycosyl transferases modify NOTCH precursors by glycosylating conserved serine and threonine residues in EGF repeats of NOTCH. O-fucosyl transferase POFUT1 fucosylates NOTCH serine and threonine residues that conform to the consensus sequence C2-X(4-5)-S/T-C3,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Pre-NOTCH Transcription and Translation

In humans, the NOTCH protein family has four members: NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3 and NOTCH4. NOTCH1 protein was identified first, as the product of a chromosome 9 gene translocated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia that was homologous to Drosophila Notch (Ellisen et al. 1991). At...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Loss of Function of FBXW7 in Cancer and NOTCH1 Signaling

Loss of function mutations found in FBXW7 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia are predominantly dominant negative missense mutations that target one of the three highly conserved arginine residues in the WD repeats of FBXW7 (Thompson et al. 2007, O'Neil et al. 2007). These three...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 HD+PEST Domain Mutants

When found in cis, HD and PEST domain mutations act synergistically, increasing NOTCH1 transcriptional activity up to ~40-fold, compared with up to ~10-fold and up to ~2-fold increase with HD mutations alone and PEST domain mutations alone, respectively (Weng et al. 2004). HD domain...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 PEST Domain Mutants

As NOTCH1 PEST domain is intracellular, NOTCH1 PEST domain mutants are expected to behave as the wild-type NOTCH1 with respect to ligand binding and proteolytic cleavage mediated activation of signaling. However, once the NICD1 fragment of NOTCH1 is released, PEST domain mutations...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 HD Domain Mutants

The heterodimerization (HD) domain of NOTCH1, responsible for association of NOTCH1 extracellular and transmembrane regions after furin-mediated cleavage of NOTCH1 precursor, is one of the hotspots for gain-of-function NOTCH1 mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 t(7;9)(NOTCH1:M1580_K2555) Translocation Mutant

NOTCH1 t(7;9)(NOTCH1:M1580_K2555) mutant is expressed in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. This mutant protein results from a translocation that joins a portion of intron 24 of the NOTCH1 gene to the promoter sequence of T-cell receptor beta (TCRB),...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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