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Links from Protein

Items: 1 to 20 of 719

1.

Apelin signaling pathway

Apelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Th17 cell differentiation

Interleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In vivo, Th17 differentiation requires antigen...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and under certain pathologic condition such as huperglycemia. Some of the best chemically...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date include embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. ES cells are...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

FoxO signaling pathway

The forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative stress resistance, and longevity. A central regulatory mechanism of FOXO proteins is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Hippo signaling pathway

Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor Salvador and LATS1 and LATS2. In response to high cell densities, activated LATS1/2...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and converted into a covalently closed circular molecule cccDNA. The cccDNA is the template...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
694606
KEGG
: hsa05161
8.

HTLV-I infection

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Chronic myeloid leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (CP), which is characterized by expansion of functionally normal myeloid cells, followed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Pancreatic cancer

Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Normal duct epithelium progresses to infiltrating cancer through a series of histologically...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in defined oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes (TSG). Two major mechanisms of genomic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Adherens junction

Cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs), the most common type of intercellular adhesions, are important for maintaining tissue architecture and cell polarity and can limit cell movement and proliferation. At AJs, E-cadherin serves as an essential cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The cytoplasmic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

TGF-beta signaling pathway

The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Wnt signaling pathway

Wnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, in many different species and organs. There are at least three different Wnt pathways:...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Cell cycle

Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Ub-specific processing proteases

Ub-specific processing proteases (USPs) are the largest of the DUB families with more than 50 members in humans. The USP catalytic domain varies considerably in size and consists of six conserved motifs with N- or C-terminal extensions and insertions occurring between the conserved...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Downregulation of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 transcriptional activity

Transcriptional activity of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer can be inhibited by formation of a complex with SKI or SKIL (SNO), where SKI or SKIL recruit NCOR and possibly other transcriptional repressors to SMAD-binding promoter elements (Sun et al. 1999, Luo et al. 1999, Strochein et...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

SMAD2/SMAD3:SMAD4 heterotrimer regulates transcription

After phosphorylated SMAD2 and/or SMAD3 form a heterotrimer with SMAD4, SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex translocates to the nucleus (Xu et al. 2000, Kurisaki et al. 2001, Xiao et al. 2003). In the nucleus, linker regions of SMAD2 and SMAD3 within SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex can be phosphorylated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Signaling by BMP

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have many biological activities in various tissues, including bone, cartilage, blood vessels, heart, kidney, neurons, liver and lung. They are members of the Transforming growth factor-Beta (TGFB) family. They bind to type II and type I serine-threonine...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

SMAD2/3 MH2 Domain Mutants in Cancer

Mutations in the MH2 domain of SMAD2 and SMAD3 affect their ability to form heterotrimers with SMAD4, thereby impairing TGF-beta signaling (Fleming et al. 2013).The SMAD2 and SMAD3 MH2 domain residues most frequently targeted by missense mutations are those that are homologous to...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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