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Items: 1 to 20 of 35

1.

COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic

In addition to the better characterized COPI-dependent retrograde Golgi-to-ER pathway, a second COPI-independent pathway has also been identified. This pathway is RAB6 dependent and transports cargo such as glycosylation enzymes and Shiga and Shiga-like toxin through tubular carriers...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport

Retrograde traffic from the cis-Golgi to the ERGIC or the ER occurs through either COPI-coated vesicles or through a less well characterized RAB6-dependent route that makes use of tubular carriers (reviewed in Lord et al, 2013; Spang et al, 2013; Heffernan and Simpson, 2014). The...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Intra-Golgi and retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic

The mammalian Golgi complex, a central hub of both anterograde and retrograde trafficking, is a ribbon of stacked cisterna with biochemically distinct compartments (reviewed in Glick and Nakano, 2009; Szul and Sztul, 2011). Anterograde cargo from the ERGIC and ER is received at the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

AURKA Activation by TPX2

TPX2 binds to aurora kinase A (AURKA) at centrosomes and promotes its activation by facilitating AURKA active conformation and autophosphorylation of the AURKA threonine residue T288 (Bayliss et al. 2003, Xu et al. 2011, Giubettini et al. 2011, Dodson and Bayliss 2012).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

COPI-mediated anterograde transport

The ERGIC (ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment, also known as vesicular-tubular clusters, VTCs) is a stable, biochemically distinct compartment located adjacent to ER exit sites (Ben-Tekaya et al, 2005; reviewed in Szul and Sztul, 2011). The ERGIC concentrates COPII-derived cargo...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Membrane Trafficking

The secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is made up of distinct organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Vesicle-mediated transport

The transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclosed in the vesicle lumen or located in the vesicle membrane. The transport process...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes

During interphase, Nlp interacts with gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC), and is thought to contribute to the organization of interphase microtubules (Casenghi et al.,2003). Plk1 is activated at the onset of mitosis and phosphorylates Nlp triggering its displacement from...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization from the centrosome

In addition to recruiting proteins and complexes necessary for increased microtubule nucleation, centrosomal maturation involves the loss of proteins involved in interphase microtubule organization and centrosome cohesion (Casenghi et al., 2003; Mayor et al., 2002).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes

The mitotic spindle becomes established once centrosomes have migrated to opposite poles and the nuclear envelope has broken down. During this stage, interphase centrosomes mature into mitotic centrosomes recruiting additional gamma TuRC complexes and acquiring mitosis-associated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Centrosome maturation

The centrosome is the primary microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in vertebrate cells and plays an important role in orchestrating the formation of the mitotic spindle. Centrosome maturation is an early event in this process and involves a major reorganization of centrosomal material...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition

The kinase activity of PLK1 is required for cell cycle progression as PLK1 phosphorylates and regulates a number of cellular proteins during mitosis. Centrosomic AURKA (Aurora A kinase), catalytically activated through AJUBA facilitated autophosphorylation on threonine residue T288...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

G2/M Transition

Cyclin A can also form complexes with Cdc2 (Cdk1). Together with three B-type cyclins, Cdc2 (Cdk1) regulates the transition from G2 into mitosis. These complexes are activated by dephosphorylation of T14 and Y15. Cyclin A, B - Cdc2 complexes phosphorylate several proteins involved...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Mitotic G2-G2/M phases

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Cell Cycle, Mitotic

The replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried out during a discrete temporal period known as the S (synthesis)-phase, and chromosome...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Cell Cycle

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

MHC class II antigen presentation

Antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II) at their surface and present exogenous antigenic peptides to CD4+ T helper cells. CD4+ T cells play a central role...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Adaptive Immune System

Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with remarkable diversity tailored to recognize aspects of particular pathogens or antigens....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Immune System

Humans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first critical hours and days of exposure to a new pathogen, our innate immune system.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane

Cilium biogenesis is initiated by the docking of basal bodies, a centriole-derived organelle, to the plasma membrane (reviewed in Reiter et al, 2012). The centriole consists of a multiprotein core surrounded by a ring of nine microtubule triplets; the mother centriole additionally...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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