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Items: 1 to 20 of 39

1.

ATM Signaling Network in Development and Disease

This pathway is modeled after Figure 4 in the article "The ATM signaling network in development and disease" (See Bibliography). When DNA is damaged, DDR begins to work on recuperating the damage through the appropriate cellular programs such as transcription, translation, etc etc....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
2.

mir-124 predicted interactions with cell cycle and differentiation

Schematic of predicted interactions of miR-124 with cell cycle and cell differentiation machinery. A genomewide miRNA mimic toxicity screen indicates common and selective vulnerabilities of epithelial ovarian cancer cells. miR-124 is selectively toxic, mainly by inducing terminal...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
3.

Regulation of TP53 Activity through Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation of TP53 (p53) at the N-terminal serine residues S15 and S20 plays a critical role in protein stabilization as phosphorylation at these sites interferes with binding of the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 to TP53. Several different kinases can phosphorylate TP53 at S15 and S20....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Regulation of TP53 Activity

Protein stability and transcriptional activity of TP53 (p53) tumor suppressor are regulated by post-translational modifications that include ubiquitination, phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, sumoylation and prolyl-isomerization (Kruse and Gu 2009, Meek and Anderson 2009,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Longevity regulating pathway

Regulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible strategy for extending lifespan. Four pathways have been implicated in mediating the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

AMPK inhibits chREBP transcriptional activation activity

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy levels. A high cellular ratio of AMP:ATP triggers the phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Activated AMPK in turn phosphorylates a wide array of target proteins, as shown in the figure below (reproduced from (Hardie...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Integration of energy metabolism

Many hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insulin mediates the storage of excess nutrients, glucagon is involved in the mobilization...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Metabolism

Metabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as the inactivation and elimination of toxic ones generated endogenously or present in...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Transcriptional Regulation by TP53

The tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many genes involved in a variety of cellular processes, such as cellular metabolism, survival,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Generic Transcription Pathway

OVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or tissue-specific regulation of differential gene transcription is mediated (reviewed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Gene Expression

Gene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are processed. Most annotation is centered on the generation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by regulated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R

The phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et al. 2010, Parrella et al. 2010, Siddle et al. 2012). The phosphorylated IRS proteins...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

IGF1R signaling cascade

After autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activity (recently reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et al. 2010,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R)

Binding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS-RAS-RAF-MAPK (ERK) pathway and the PI3K-PKB (AKT) pathway (recently reviewed in Pavelic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Energy dependent regulation of mTOR by LKB1-AMPK

Upon formation of a trimeric LKB1:STRAD:MO25 complex, LKB1 phosphorylates and activates AMPK. This phosphorylation is immediately removed in basal conditions by PP2C, but if the cellular AMP:ATP ratio rises, this activation is maintained, as AMP binding by AMPK inhibits the dephosphorylation....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

mTOR signalling

Target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly-conserved serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth and division in response to energy levels, growth signals, and nutrients (Zoncu et al. 2011). Control of mTOR activity is critical for the cell since its dysregulation leads to cancer,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

PKB-mediated events

PKB and PDK1 are activated via membrane-bound PIP3. Activated PDK1 phosphorylates PKB, which in turn phosphorylates PDE3B. The latter hydrolyses cAMP to 5'AMP, depleting cAMP pools.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

PI3K Cascade

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

IRS-mediated signalling

Release of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Insulin receptor signalling cascade

Autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor is its internalisation into an endosome,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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