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Items: 1 to 20 of 52

1.

Neutrophil degranulation

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and migrate towards the inflammatory focus. They contain several subsets of granules that...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Antimicrobial peptides

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecular weight proteins with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi (Zasloff M 2002; Radek K & Gallo R 2007). The majority of known AMPs are cationic peptides with common structural characteristics where...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Ub-specific processing proteases

Ub-specific processing proteases (USPs) are the largest of the DUB families with more than 50 members in humans. The USP catalytic domain varies considerably in size and consists of six conserved motifs with N- or C-terminal extensions and insertions occurring between the conserved...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Deubiquitination

Ubiquitination, the modification of proteins by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin (Ub), is a key regulatory mechanism for many many cellular processes, including protein degradation by the 26S proteasome. Ub conjugates linked via lysine 48 (K48) target substrates to the proteasome,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Cargo recognition for clathrin-mediated endocytosis

Recruitment of plasma membrane-localized cargo into clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles is mediated by interaction with a variety of clathrin-interacting proteins collectively called CLASPs (clathrin-associated sorting proteins). CLASP proteins, which may be monomeric or tetrameric,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is one of a number of process that control the uptake of material from the plasma membrane, and leads to the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (Pearse et al, 1975; reviewed in Robinson, 2015; McMahon and Boucrot, 2011; Kirchhausen et al, 2014)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Collagen degradation

Collagen fibril diameter and spatial organisation are dependent on the species, tissue type and stage of development (Parry 1988). The lengths of collagen fibrils in mature tissues are largely unknown but in tendon can be measured in millimetres (Craig et al. 1989). Collagen fibrils...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), previously known as matrixins, are classically known to be involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, recent high throughput proteomics analyses have revealed that ~80% of MMP substrates are non-ECM proteins including...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Degradation of the extracellular matrix

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), previously referred to as matrixins because of their role in degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), are zinc and calcium dependent proteases belonging to the metzincin family. They contain a characteristic zinc-binding motif HEXXHXXGXXH (Stocker...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Extracellular matrix organization

The extracellular matrix is a component of all mammalian tissues, a network consisting largely of the fibrous proteins collagen, elastin and associated-microfibrils, fibronectin and laminins embedded in a viscoelastic gel of anionic proteoglycan polymers. It performs many functions...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) transport and metabolism

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in blood formation and normal functioning of the brain and nervous system. Cbl consists of a planar corrin ring coordinating with a cobalt atom through four nitrogen atoms. A 5,6-dimethylbenzamidizole base coordinates...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors

Vitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, required in small amounts in the diet. They have distinct biochemical roles, often as coenzymes, and are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amounts by human cells. Vitamins are classified according to their solubility,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors

Vitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, classified according to their solubility, either fat-soluble or water-soluble, that are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amounts by human cells. They are required in small amounts in the diet and have distinct...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Metabolism

Metabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as the inactivation and elimination of toxic ones generated endogenously or present in...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

ABC-family proteins mediated transport

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of active transporters involves a large number of functionally diverse transmembrane proteins. They transport a variety of compounds through membranes against steep concentration gradients at the cost of ATP hydrolysis. These substrates...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Transmembrane transport of small molecules

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Membrane Trafficking

The secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is made up of distinct organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Vesicle-mediated transport

The transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclosed in the vesicle lumen or located in the vesicle membrane. The transport process...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

RHO GTPases regulate CFTR trafficking

Activated RHO GTPase RHOQ (TC10) regulates the trafficking of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) by binding to GOPC (Golgi-associated and PDZ and coiled-coil motif-containing protein) also known as PIST, FIG or CAL. GOPC is a Golgi resident protein that binds...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

RHO GTPase Effectors

RHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall 2002).One of the best studied RHO GTPase effectors are protein kinases ROCK1 and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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