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Items: 1 to 20 of 33

1.

Major pathway of rRNA processing in the nucleolus and cytosol

In humans, a 47S precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) is transcribed by RNA polymerase I from rRNA-encoding genes (rDNA) at the boundary of the fibrillar center and the dense fibrillar components of the nucleolus (Stanek et al. 2001). The 47S precursor is processed over the course of about 5-8...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Selenocysteine synthesis

Selenocysteine, the 21st genetically encoded amino acid, is the major form of the antioxidant trace element selenium in the human body. In eukaryotes and archaea its synthesis proceeds through a phosphorylated intermediate in a tRNA-dependent fashion. The final step of selenocysteine...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) independent of the Exon Junction Complex (EJC)

Nonsense-mediated decay has been observed with mRNAs that do not have an exon junction complex (EJC) downstream of the termination codon (reviewed in Isken and Maquat 2007, Chang et al. 2007, Behm-Ansmant et al. 2007, Rebbapragada and Lykke-Andersen 2009, Nicholson et al. 2010). In...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) enhanced by the Exon Junction Complex (EJC)

During normal translation termination eRF3 associates with the ribosome and then interacts with PABP bound to the polyadenylate tail of the mRNA to release the ribosome and allow a new round of translation to commence. Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is triggered if eRF3 at the ribosome...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Viral mRNA Translation

Spliced and unspliced viral mRNA in the cytoplasm are translated by host cell ribosomal translation machinery (reviewed in Kash, 2006). At least ten viral proteins are synthesized: HA, NA, PB1, PB2, PA, NP, NS1, NEP/NS2, M1, and M2. Viral mRNA translation is believed to be enhanced...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Eukaryotic Translation Termination

The arrival of any of the three stop codons (UAA, UAG and UGA) into the ribosomal A-site triggers the binding of a release factor (RF) to the ribosome and subsequent polypeptide chain release. In eukaryotes, the RF is composed of two proteins, eRF1 and eRF3. eRF1 is responsible for...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Peptide chain elongation

The mechanism of a peptide bond requires the movement of three protons. First the deprotonation of the ammonium ion generates a reactive amine, allowing a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl group. This is followed by the loss of a proton from the reaction intermediate, only to...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

L13a-mediated translational silencing of Ceruloplasmin expression

While circularization of mRNA during translation initiation is thought to contribute to an increase in the efficiency of translation, it also appears to provide a mechanism for translational silencing. This might be achieved by bringing inhibitory 3' UTR-binding proteins into a position...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

GTP hydrolysis and joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit

Hydrolysis of eIF2-GTP occurs after the Met-tRNAi has recognized the AUG. This reaction is catalyzed by eIF5 (or eIF5B) and is thought to cause dissociation of all other initiation factors and allow joining of the large 60S ribosomal subunit. The 60S subunit joins - a reaction catalyzed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Ribosome, eukaryotes

Structural complex; Genetic information processing; Ribosome

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
413404
KEGG
: hsa_M00177
11.

Ribosome

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

rRNA processing in the nucleus and cytosol

Each eukaryotic cytosolic ribosome contains 4 molecules of RNA: 28S rRNA (25S rRNA in yeast), 5.8S rRNA, and 5S rRNA in the 60S subunit and 18S rRNA in the 40S subunit. The 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, and 28S rRNA are produced by endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic processing of a single...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Selenoamino acid metabolism

Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential for the normal function of the body. Selenoamino acids are defined as those amino acids where selenium has been substituted for sulphur. Selenium and sulphur share many chemical properties and so the substitution of normal amino acids with...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Nonsense-Mediated Decay (NMD)

The Nonsense-Mediated Decay (NMD) pathway activates the destruction of mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs) (reviewed in Isken and Maquat 2007, Chang et al. 2007, Behm-Ansmant et al. 2007, Neu-Yilik and Kulozik 2008, Rebbapragada and Lykke-Andersen 2009, Bhuvanagiri...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Influenza Viral RNA Transcription and Replication

In the host cell nucleus, the viral negative-strand RNA (vRNA) serves as a template for the synthesis both of capped, polyadenylated viral messenger RNA and of full-length positive-strand RNA or complementary RNA (cRNA). The cRNA is associated with the same viral proteins as the vRNA....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Influenza Life Cycle

The virus particle initially associates with a human host cell by binding to sialic acid-containing receptors on the host cell surface. The bound virus is endocytosed by one of four distinct mechanisms. The low endosomal pH sets in motion a number of steps that lead to viral membrane...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Eukaryotic Translation Elongation

The translation elongation cycle adds one amino acid at a time to a growing polypeptide according to the sequence of codons found in the mRNA. The next available codon on the mRNA is exposed in the aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding site (A site) on the 30S subunit.A: Ternary complexes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

SRP-dependent cotranslational protein targeting to membrane

The process for translation of a protein destined for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) branches from the canonical cytoslic translation process at the point when a nascent polypeptide containing a hydrophobic signal sequence is exposed on the surface of the cytosolic ribosome:mRNA:peptide...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Formation of a pool of free 40S subunits

The 80S ribosome dissociates into free 40S (small) and 60S (large) ribosomal subunits. Each ribosomal subunit is constituted by several individual ribosomal proteins and rRNA.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1268681
REACTOME
: R-HSA-72689
20.

Eukaryotic Translation Initiation

Initiation of translation in the majority of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs depends on the 5'-cap (m7GpppN) and involves ribosomal scanning of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) for an initiating AUG start codon. Therefore, this mechanism is often called cap-dependent translation initiation....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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