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Items: 1 to 20 of 37

1.

Adipocytokine signaling pathway

Increased adipocyte volume and number are positively correlated with leptin production, and negatively correlated with production of adiponectin. Leptin is an important regulator of energy intake and metabolic rate primarily by acting at hypothalamic nuclei. Leptin exerts its anorectic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Melanogenesis

Cutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory control by multiple agents. The most important positive regulator of melanogenesis is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling

Interleukin-4 (IL4) is a principal regulatory cytokine during the immune response, crucially important in allergy and asthma (Nelms et al. 1999). When resting T cells are antigen-activated and expand in response to Interleukin-2 (IL2), they can differentiate as Type 1 (Th1) or Type...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Androgen biosynthesis

Androgens are the determining factors for male development and behaviour in vertebrates (Miller 2002).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Glucocorticoid biosynthesis

Cortisol, the major human glucocorticoid, is synthesized in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex from pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is converted to 17alpha-hydoxyprogesterone in two reactions, both catalyzed by 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase. 17Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

G-protein activation

Receptor activated heterotrimeric G proteins consist of the Galpha and the tightly associated Gbeta-gamma subunits. When a ligand binds to a G protein-coupled receptor, it stabilises a conformation with an high affinity for the G-protein bound to GDP. GDP is then exchanged for GTP...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

G alpha (i) signalling events

The classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinases.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

G alpha (s) signalling events

The general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to collectively as Protein Kinase A). The signal from the ligand-stimulated GPCR is amplified...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Endogenous sterols

A number of CYPs take part in cholesterol biosynthesis and elimination, thus playing an important role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. Under normal physiological conditions, cholesterol intake (diet or synthesized de novo from acetyl CoA) equals cholesterol elimination (degraded...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type

The P450 isozyme system is the major phase 1 biotransforming system in man, accounting for more than 90% of drug biotransformations. This system has huge catalytic versatility and a broad substrate specificity, acting upon xenobiotica and endogenous compounds. It is also called the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds

Phase 1 of metabolism is concerned with functionalization, that is the introduction or exposure of functional groups on the chemical structure of a compound. This provides a 'handle' for phase 2 conjugating species with which to react with. Many xenobiotics are lipophilic and almost...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Biological oxidations

All organisms are constantly exposed to foreign chemicals every day. These can be man-made (drugs, industrial chemicals) or natural (alkaloids, toxins from plants and animals). Uptake is usually via ingestion but inhalation and transdermal routes are also common.The very nature of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Metabolism of steroid hormones

Steroid hormones are synthesized primarily in the adrenal gland and gonads. They regulate energy metabolism and stress responses (glucocorticoids), salt balance (mineralocorticoids), and sexual development and function (androgens and estrogens). All steroids are synthesized from cholesterol....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Opioid Signalling

Opioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as the enkephalins, the endorphins or the dynorphins. Opioids possess powerful analgesic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

GPCR downstream signaling

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it has become clear that this greatly oversimplifies the complexities of GPCR signaling...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Peptide ligand-binding receptors

These receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)

Rhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and thus, can be subdivided into 19 subfamilies (Subfamily A1-19) based on a phylogenetic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

GPCR ligand binding

There are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all physiological processes (Frederiksson 2003). GPCRs are receptors for a diverse range...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Signaling by Interleukins

Interleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but are now known to be produced by many other cells throughout the body. They have pleiotropic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Cytokine Signaling in Immune system

Cytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concentrations. Cytokines bind to specific membrane receptors, which then signal the cell...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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