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Items: 1 to 20 of 57

1.

Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species

Aging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, recent work has shown that dietary restriction (DR) and genetic down-regulation of nutrient-sensing...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Longevity regulating pathway

Regulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible strategy for extending lifespan. Four pathways have been implicated in mediating the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. In this diagram multiple mechanisms...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Glucagon signaling pathway

Glucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase blood glucose, glucagon promotes hepatic glucose output by increasing glycogenolysis...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

AMPK signaling pathway

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Oxytocin signaling pathway

Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and peripheral effects. However, its best-known and most well-established roles are stimulation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

FoxO signaling pathway

The forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative stress resistance, and longevity. A central regulatory mechanism of FOXO proteins is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH may further lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological features of myocyte hypertrophy, myfibrillar disarray, and interstitial fibrosis. HCM...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Adipocytokine signaling pathway

Increased adipocyte volume and number are positively correlated with leptin production, and negatively correlated with production of adiponectin. Leptin is an important regulator of energy intake and metabolic rate primarily by acting at hypothalamic nuclei. Leptin exerts its anorectic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Insulin signaling pathway

Insulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Circadian rhythm

Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of cell-autonomous transcription-translation feedback loops that drive rhythmic, 24-hour...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Regulation of TP53 Activity through Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation of TP53 (p53) at the N-terminal serine residues S15 and S20 plays a critical role in protein stabilization as phosphorylation at these sites interferes with binding of the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 to TP53. Several different kinases can phosphorylate TP53 at S15 and S20....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Macroautophagy

Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) acts as a buffer against starvation by liberating building materials and energy sources from cellular components. It has additional roles in embryonic development, removal of apoptotic cells or organelles, antigen presentation, protection...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

AMPK inhibits chREBP transcriptional activation activity

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy levels. A high cellular ratio of AMP:ATP triggers the phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Activated AMPK in turn phosphorylates a wide array of target proteins, as shown in the figure below (reproduced from (Hardie...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Import of palmitoyl-CoA into the mitochondrial matrix

The mitochondrial carnitine system catalyzes the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix where they undergo beta oxidation. This transport system consists of the malonyl-CoA sensitive carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) localized in the mitochondrial...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane

In adipocytes and myocytes insulin signaling causes intracellular vesicles carrying the GLUT4 (SLC2A4) glucose transporter to translocate to the plasma membrane, allowing the cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream (reviewed in Zaid et al. 2008, Leney and Tavare 2009, Bogan...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes

While the p53 tumor suppressor protein (TP53) is known to inhibit cell growth by inducing apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest, recent studies have found that p53 is also able to influence cell metabolism to prevent tumor development. TP53 regulates transcription of many genes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Energy dependent regulation of mTOR by LKB1-AMPK

Upon formation of a trimeric LKB1:STRAD:MO25 complex, LKB1 phosphorylates and activates AMPK. This phosphorylation is immediately removed in basal conditions by PP2C, but if the cellular AMP:ATP ratio rises, this activation is maintained, as AMP binding by AMPK inhibits the dephosphorylation....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Activation of PPARGC1A (PGC-1alpha) by phosphorylation

The transcriptional coactivator PPARGC1A (PGC-1alpha), one of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, is activated by phosphorylation. Energy depletion causes a reduction in ATP and an increase in AMP which activates AMPK. AMPK in turn phosphorylates PPARGC1A. Likewise,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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