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Items: 1 to 20 of 66

1.

Th17 cell differentiation

Interleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In vivo, Th17 differentiation requires antigen...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation

Immunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided by antigen presenting cells (APC) and include T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2. Th1 cells...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and genetic factors, infectious microbes, and the dysregulated immune system. Although many...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Epstein-Barr virus infection

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells, causing infectious mononucleosis during adolescence. Primary infection...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Herpes simplex infection

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishment of latent infection in neuronal ganglia. HSV is the main cause of herpes infections...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

HTLV-I infection

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Influenza A

Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains that cause pandemics arise from avian influenza virus by genetic reassortment among...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent infections, and about 10% of latent infections develop active diseases when their...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune system elevates pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines levels, which can promote...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Staphylococcus aureus infection

Staphylococcus aureus can cause multiple forms of infections ranging from superficial skin infections to food poisoning and life-threatening infections. The organism has several ways to divert the effectiveness of the immune system: secreting immune modulating proteins that inhibit...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechanisms. During early infection, nuclear translocation of NFkB is temporally blocked...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Phagosome

Phagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is formed when the specific receptors on the phagocyte surface recognize ligands on...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Leishmaniasis

Leishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and proliferate intracellularly by deactivating the macrophage. Successful infection of Leishmania...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Intestinal immune network for IgA production

The intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that serve as the first line of defense against microorganisms. The basic map of IgA...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Viral myocarditis

Myocarditis is a cardiac disease associated with inflammation and injury of the myocardium. It results from various etiologies, both noninfectious and infectious, but coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is still considered the dominant etiological agent. Myocarditis may be caused by direct cytopathic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
125138
KEGG
: hsa05416
16.

Graft-versus-host disease

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) where immunocompetent donor T cells attack the genetically disparate host cells. GVHD pathophysiology can be summerized in a three-step process. Step 1 involves the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Allograft rejection

Allograft rejection is the consequence of the recipient's alloimmune response to nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues. After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of antigen presentation. In the direct pathway, recipient T cells react to intact allogeneic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterised by the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self-antigens, such as DNA, nuclear proteins and certain cytoplasmic components, in association with a diverse array of clinical manifestations....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Autoimmune thyroid disease

The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Asthma

Asthma is a complex syndrome with many clinical phenotypes in both adults and children. Its major characteristics include a variable degree of airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Inhaled allergens encounter antigen presenting cells (APC) that...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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