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Items: 1 to 20 of 23

1.

cGMP-PKG signaling pathway

Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated intracellular cGMP level exerts its physiological action through two forms of cGMP-dependent...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

HTLV-I infection

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Huntington's disease

Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality changes and dementia. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the IT15gene, which...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that results primarily from the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mutations in alpha-synuclein, UCHL1 (a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1), parkin, DJ1...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Calcium signaling pathway

Ca2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this external source of signal Ca2+ by activating various entry channels with widely different...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Vpr-mediated induction of apoptosis by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization

In one model of Vpr mediated induction of apoptosis, Vpr acts directly on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex through its interaction with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). This interaction promotes the permeabiliztion of the mitochondrial membranes resulting...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Mitochondrial protein import

A human mitochondrion contains about 1500 proteins, more than 99% of which are encoded in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the mitochondrion. Proteins are targeted to four locations (outer membrane, intermembrane space, inner membrane, and matrix) and must...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Regulation of insulin secretion

Pancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or inhibit the amount of insulin secreted in response to glucose. Factors which increase...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Integration of energy metabolism

Many hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insulin mediates the storage of excess nutrients, glucagon is involved in the mobilization...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Interactions of Vpr with host cellular proteins

Vpr has been implicated in multiple processes during HIV-1 replication, including nuclear import of the pre-integration complex (PIC)(Heinzinger et al., 1994), apoptosis (Stewart et al., 1997) and induction of cell cycle G2/M arrest (He et al., 1995; Re et al., 1995; Zhao et al.,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

cGMP-PKG signaling pathway

Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated intracellular cGMP level exerts its physiological action through two forms of cGMP-dependent...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
12.

HTLV-I infection

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
13.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways

In this model, we provide an integrated view of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) at the level of implicated tissues, signaling networks and genetics. The purpose of this model is to serve as an overview of research in this field and recommend new candidates for more focused or...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
14.

Huntington's disease

Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality changes and dementia. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the IT15gene, which...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
15.

Calcium signaling pathway

Ca2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this external source of signal Ca2+ by activating various entry channels with widely different...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
16.

Host Interactions of HIV factors

Like all viruses, HIV-1 must co-opt the host cell macromolecular transport and processing machinery. HIV-1 Vpr and Rev proteins play key roles in this co-optation. Efficient HIV-1 replication likewise requires evasion of APOBEC3G-mediated mutagenesis of reverse transcripts, a process...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Metabolism of proteins

Protein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

HIV Infection

The global pandemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has resulted in tens of millions of people infected by the virus and millions more affected. UNAIDS estimates around 40 million HIV/AIDS patients worldwide with 75% of them living in sub-Saharan Africa. The...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Synaptic Vesicle Pathway

Pathway depicting synaptic transmission of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic nerve terminal to the synaptic cleft upon depolarization. Synaptotagmin mediated transport along the nerve cell cytoskeleton indicates the initial step of this process. Originally created by Joanna S....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
20.

Electron Transport Chain

An electron transport chain(ETC) couples a chemical reaction between an electron donor (such as NADH) and an electron acceptor (such as O2) to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane, through a set of mediating biochemical reactions. These H+ ions are used to produce adenosine triphosphate...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem

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