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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 511

1.

Post-translational protein modification

After translation, many newly formed proteins undergo further covalent modifications that alter their functional properties and that are essentially irreversible under physiological conditions in the body. These modifications include the internal peptide bond cleavages that activate...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Metabolism of proteins

Protein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Deubiquitination

Ubiquitination, the modification of proteins by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin (Ub), is a key regulatory mechanism for many many cellular processes, including protein degradation by the 26S proteasome. Ub conjugates linked via lysine 48 (K48) target substrates to the proteasome,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Asparagine N-linked glycosylation

N-linked glycosylation is the most important form of post-translational modification for proteins synthesized and folded in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (Stanley et al. 2009). An early study in 1999 revealed that about 50% of the proteins in the Swiss-Prot database at the time were N-glycosylated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Ub-specific processing proteases

Ub-specific processing proteases (USPs) are the largest of the DUB families with more than 50 members in humans. The USP catalytic domain varies considerably in size and consists of six conserved motifs with N- or C-terminal extensions and insertions occurring between the conserved...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification

At least two mechanisms of transport of proteins from the ER to the Golgi have been described. One is a general flow requiring no export signals (Wieland et al, 1987; Martinez-Menarguez et al, 1999). The other is mediated by LMAN1/MCFD2, mannose-binding lectins that recognize a...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

SUMOylation

Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifiers (SUMOs) are a family of 3 proteins (SUMO1,2,3) that are reversibly conjugated to lysine residues of target proteins via a glycine-lysine isopeptide bond (reviewed in Hay 2013, Hannoun et al. 2010, Gareau and Lima 2010, Wilkinson and Henley 2010, Wang...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

SUMO E3 ligases SUMOylate target proteins

SUMO proteins are conjugated to lysine residues of target proteins via an isopeptide bond with the C-terminal glycine of SUMO (reviewed in Zhao 2007, Gareau and Lima 2010, Hannoun et al. 2010, Citro and Chiocca 2013, Yang and Chiang 2013). Proteomic analyses indicate that SUMO is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

ER to Golgi Anterograde Transport

Secretory cargo destined to be secreted or to arrive at the plasma membrane (PM) leaves the ER via distinct exit sites. This cargo is destined for the Golgi apparatus for further processing.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Membrane Trafficking

The secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is made up of distinct organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Vesicle-mediated transport

The transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclosed in the vesicle lumen or located in the vesicle membrane. The transport process...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Cell Cycle

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

O-linked glycosylation

O-glycosylation is an important post-translational modification (PTM) required for correct functioning of many proteins (Van den Steen et al. 1998, Moremen et al. 2012). The O-glycosylation of proteins containing thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) domains and O-glycosylation of mucins...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Cell Cycle, Mitotic

The replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried out during a discrete temporal period known as the S (synthesis)-phase, and chromosome...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Disease

Biological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular viewpoint, human disease pathways have three mechanistic causes: the inclusion of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Cellular responses to stress

Cells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissues to modulate molecular processes in response to such external stresses is essential...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Cell Cycle Checkpoints

A hallmark of the human cell cycle in normal somatic cells is its precision. This remarkable fidelity is achieved by a number of signal transduction pathways, known as checkpoints, which monitor cell cycle progression ensuring an interdependency of S-phase and mitosis, the integrity...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

SUMOylation of DNA damage response and repair proteins

Several factors that participate in DNA damage response and repair are SUMOylated (reviewed in Dou et al. 2011, Bekker-Jensen and Mailand 2011, Ulrich 2012, Psakhye and Jentsch 2012, Bologna and Ferrari 2013, Flotho and Melchior 2013, Jackson and Durocher 2013). SUMOylation can alter...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

COPI-mediated anterograde transport

The ERGIC (ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment, also known as vesicular-tubular clusters, VTCs) is a stable, biochemically distinct compartment located adjacent to ER exit sites (Ben-Tekaya et al, 2005; reviewed in Szul and Sztul, 2011). The ERGIC concentrates COPII-derived cargo...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

M Phase

Mitosis, or the M phase, involves nuclear division and cytokinesis, where two identical daughter cells are produced. Mitosis involves prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Finally, cytokinesis leads to cell division. The phase between two M phases is called...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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