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Items: 1 to 20 of 73

1.

Viral carcinogenesis

There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Alcoholism

Alcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the rewarding effects of alcohol, dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) projections to the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterised by the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self-antigens, such as DNA, nuclear proteins and certain cytoplasmic components, in association with a diverse array of clinical manifestations....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

ERCC6 (CSB) and EHMT2 (G9a) positively regulate rRNA expression

About half of the rRNA genes in the genome are actively expressed, being transcribed by RNA polymerase I (reviewed in Nemeth and Langst 2008, Bartova et al. 2010, Goodfellow and Zomerdijk 2012, Grummt and Langst 2013). As inferred from mouse, those genes that are expressed are activated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Activation of anterior HOX genes in hindbrain development during early embryogenesis

In mammals, anterior Hox genes may be defined as paralog groups 1 to 4 (Natale et al. 2011), which are involved in development of the hindbrain through sequential expression in the rhombomeres, transient segments of the neural tube that form during development of the hindbrain (reviewed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

B-WICH complex positively regulates rRNA expression

The B-WICH complex is a large 3 Mdalton complex containing SMARCA5 (SNF2H), BAZ1B (WSTF), ERCC6 (CSB), MYO1C (Nuclear myosin 1c) (Cavellan et al. 2006, Percipalle et al. 2006, Vintermist et al. 2001, Sarshad et al. 2013, Shen et al. 2013, reviewed in Percipalle and Farrants 2006,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Nonhomologous End-Joining (NHEJ)

The nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway is initiated in response to the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation. DNA DSBs are recognized by the MRN complex (MRE11A:RAD50:NBN), leading to ATM activation and ATM-dependent...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Processing of DNA double-strand break ends

Homology directed repair (HDR) through homologous recombination (HRR) or single strand annealing (SSA) requires extensive resection of DNA double strand break (DSB) ends (Thompson and Limoli 2003, Ciccia and Elledge 2010). The resection is performed in a two-step process, where the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Recruitment and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of repair and signaling proteins at DNA double strand breaks

Activated ATM phosphorylates a number of proteins involved in the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair (Thompson and Schild 2002, Ciccia and Elledge 2010), thereby triggering and coordinating accumulation of DNA DSB repair proteins in nuclear foci known as ionizing radiation-induced...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

RMTs methylate histone arginines

Arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification; around 2% of arginine residues are methylated in rat liver nuclei (Boffa et al. 1977). Arginine can be methylated in 3 different ways: monomethylarginine (MMA); NG,NG-asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and NG,N'G-symmetric...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

PKMTs methylate histone lysines

Lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and arginine methyltransferases (RMTs) have a common mechanism of catalysis. Both families transfer a methyl group from a common donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), to the nitrogen atom on the epsilon-amino group of lysine or arginine (Smith & Denu...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

HDMs demethylate histones

Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are able to reverse N-methylations of histones and probably other proteins. To date KDMs have been demonstrated to catalyse demethylation of N-epsilon methylated lysine residues. Biochemically there are two distinct groups of N-epsilon methylated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

HDACs deacetylate histones

Lysine deacetylases (KDACs), historically referred to as histone deacetylases (HDACs), are divided into the Rpd3/Hda1 metal-dependent 'classical HDAC family' (de Ruijter et al. 2003, Verdin et al. 2003) and the unrelated sirtuins (Milne & Denu 2008). Phylogenetic analysis divides...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

HATs acetylate histones

Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) involved in histone modifications are referred to as A-type or nuclear HATs. They can be grouped into at least four families based on sequence conservation within the HAT domain: Gcn5/PCAF, MYST, p300/CBP and Rtt109. The p300/CBP and Rtt109 families...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)

The culture medium of senescent cells in enriched in secreted proteins when compared with the culture medium of quiescent i.e. presenescent cells and these secreted proteins constitute the so-called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), also known as the senescence messaging...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence

Oxidative stress, caused by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, can happen as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the oncogenic RAS (Moiseeva et al. 2009) or independent of oncogenic signaling. Prolonged exposure to interferon-beta...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Meiotic synapsis

Meiotic synapsis is the stable physical pairing of homologous chromosomes that begins in leptonema of prophase I and lasts until anaphase of prophase I. First, short segments of axial elements form along chromosomes. Telomeres then cluster at a region of the inner nuclear membrane...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Meiotic recombination

Meiotic recombination exchanges segments of duplex DNA between chromosomal homologs, generating genetic diversity (reviewed in Handel and Schimenti 2010, Inagaki et al. 2010, Cohen et al. 2006). There are two forms of recombination: non-crossover (NCO) and crossover (CO). In mammals,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Packaging Of Telomere Ends

Multiple steps, including C-strand resection, telomerase-mediated elongation, and C-strand synthesis are involved in processing and maintaining the telomere. Though this module posits a linear transit for the steps, in humans it is not well understood how these steps are coordinated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Deposition of new CENPA-containing nucleosomes at the centromere

Eukaryotic centromeres are marked by a unique form of histone H3, designated CENPA in humans. In human cells newly synthesized CENPA is deposited in nucleosomes at the centromere during late telophase/early G1 phase of the cell cycle. Once deposited, nucleosomes containing CENPA remain...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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