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bisucaberin biosynthesis

General Background Iron is an essential trace element. In the presence of oxygen, ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron which forms insoluble compounds, and is thus not available to organisms. As a result, the level of physiologically available iron can drop to far below 1 μM, and become growth-limiting for bacteria. To survive, many bacteria evolved specialized transport systems called siderophores, which can complex and retract ferric iron ions. The siderophores are low molecular mass compounds, and have been generally divided into three main types: catecholate-, hydroxamate-, and carboxylate-siderophores. The siderophores, which have a very high and specific affinity for |FRAME: FE+3|, are excreted out of the cell and bind the metal extracellularly. The siderophore-metal complex is transported back into the cell through specific binding proteins present in the bacterial membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, the binding protein transports the ferric-siderophore into the periplasm, where a second transporter transports it into the cytosol |CITS: [12196166]|. About This Pathway |FRAME: CPD-11970 "Bisucaberin"| is a dimeric macrocylic siderophore that was initially isolated from the marine bacterium |FRAME: TAX-228| |CITS: [2962972][2962973]|. More recently the compound has been detected also in |FRAME: TAX-40269|, an important pathogen of farmed fish, including Atlantic salmon, cod and rainbow trout |CITS: [12046923]|. The structure and thermodynamics of the compound have been characterized |CITS: [11670794]|. |FRAME: CPD-11970 "Bisucaberin"| is very similar structurally to the siderophore |FRAME: CPD-11957|, which is synthesized by several |FRAME: TAX-1883| species (see |FRAME: PWY-6375|). While |FRAME: CPD-11957| is made of three molecules of |FRAME: CPD-11955| that have been condensed and cyclized, |FRAME: CPD-11970| is made of two such molecules. Thus, the biosynthetic pathway for the two siderophores only differs in the last step, which is catalyzed by the |FRAME: SCO2785|-encoded |FRAME: CPLX-7949| in |FRAME: TAX-1883|, and by the |FRAME: G-11649|-encoded enzyme in |FRAME: TAX-40269|. The gene cluster that encodes the biosynthesis and utilization of |FRAME: CPD-11970| has been identified in the |FRAME: TAX-40269| genome |CITS: [18956041]|. Biosynthesis is encoded by three genes - |FRAME: G-11647|, |FRAME: G-11648| and |FRAME: G-11649|, the later a fusion of two functions, encoding a single |FRAME: CPLX-7951| protein. The C-terminal part of the |FRAME: G-11649| gene, which encodes bisucaberin synthetase, has been cloned and expressed in |FRAME:TAX-562|, and the purified protein catalyzed the predicted activity |CITS: [18956041]|. The three biosynthetic genes are followed by five additional genes that are predicted to encode a ferric-siderophore outer membrane receptor, a ferric-siderophore periplasmic binding protein, and 2 permease components and an ATPase component of a ferric-siderophore ABC transport system. The cluster is flanked by tranposase sequences, suggesting it may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer |CITS: [18956041]|.

from BIOCYC source record: META_PWY-6381
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
545583

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