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General Background Glycolysis is one of the oldest metabolic pathways which occurs within the cell cytosol in nearly all organisms. The free energy released by the conversion of : Glucopyranose "glucose" to : PYRUVATE is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP and NADH . The first half of the pathway consumes energy to convert glucose into two three-carbon sugar phosphates. The last half of the pathway yields a net gain of ATP and NADH . The production of two triose sugars in the first phase results in the second phase occuring twice per glucose molecule. The end product, pyruvate, can enter the mitochondria via the : CPLX66-471 for further metabolism . About this Pathway In mammals, glycolysis begins with the phosphorylation of : Glucopyranose "glucose" by hexokinase to form : D-glucopyranose-6-phosphate "glucose-6-phosphate" . This ensures that the intracellular glucose concentration is kept low and promotes the continuous transport of glucose into the cell. In mammalian liver this reaction is carried out by glucokinase, an isozyme of hexokinase which has a much lower affinity (high Km) for glucose so it is effective only when glucose is abundant . Its role is to provide glucose 6-phosphate for the synthesis of : Glycogens "glycogen". Glucose 6-phosphate is then isomerized to : FRUCTOSE-6P in a reversible reaction whose direction is driven by the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate . A second phosphorylation event converts fructose 6-phosphate to : FRUCTOSE-16-DIPHOSPHATE in a rate limiting irreversible step . The formation of two charged groups prevents the diffusion of substrates out of the cell. This six-carbon sugar is then cleaved into two three-carbon sugars that are interconvertible . : GAP enters the second stage of the pathway that results in the production of 4 ATP and 2 NADH molecules with a net gain of 2 ATP and 4 NADH . The two substrate-level phosphorylation steps that produce ATP are catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase respectively, and are important regulatory points in the glycolytic pathway . : CPD-535 is a potent allosteric regulator of both : PWY66-399 and this pathway. In this pathway, it is an activator of the key rate-limiting phosphofructokinases . An increased concentration of intracellular : CPD-535 increases glycolytic flux . The metabolic role of : CPD-535 has great potential for therapeutic intervention in type II diabetes .

from BIOCYC source record: HUMAN_PWY66-400
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
organism-specific biosystem
Homo sapiens

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