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melatonin degradation II

General Background The indoleamine : N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE is a vertebrate hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It is involved in regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms. : N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE also has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In addition to the pineal gland it is synthesized in many vertebrate cells and tissues (see pathway : PWY-6030). It is ubiquitously present in cells and body fluids due to its amphiphilic properties that allow it to cross membranes. Mitochondria have the highest intracellular concentration of : N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE . Its functional groups allow both specific receptor binding and a role in oxidation chemistry. : N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE is also found in invertebrates , protozoa , plants , fungi and bacteria although its function in many cases remains incompletely defined. : N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE is also used as a human dietary supplement. In vertebrates, endogenous or ingested : N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE is catabolized several ways in different tissues (see below and pathways : PWY-6398 and : PWY-6400). Reviewed in . The enzymatic pathways of : N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE degradation are shown in this pathway and pathways : PWY-6398 and : PWY-6400. Melatonin can also be degraded by nonenzymatic pathways involving melatonin radical species, reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, or ultraviolet B radiation. It can also be degraded by nonenzymatic reactions involving oxoferryl hemoglobin, or hemin. These nonenzymatic reactions are not shown here, but are shown in . About This Pathway : N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE "Melatonin" can be degraded by by deacetylation to : CPD-12018, followed by oxidative deamination by monoamine oxidase A to : CPD-12019 and subsequent dehydrogenation of this compound by an aldehyde dehydrogenase to the acid : CPD-12020. : CPD-12019 may also be reduced to the alchohol : CPD-12021 by an alcohol dehydrogenase. Bioactive derivatives of this alcohol such as its O-acetyl derivative , or the beta-carboline pinoline, can also be formed in some tissues (in ) (not shown). This pathway has been shown in mammalian skin . Deacetylation is also a minor pathway in mammalian liver (in ). In addition, some of these metabolites have been found in protozoa, algae and yeast (in ).

from BIOCYC source record: HUMAN_PWY-6399
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
organism-specific biosystem
Homo sapiens

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