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Endochondral Ossification

Endochondral ossification is the process by which the embryonic cartilaginous model of most bones contributes to longitudinal growth and is gradually replaced by bone. During endochondral ossification, chondrocytes proliferate, undergo hypertrophy and die; the cartilage extracellular matrix they construct is then invaded by blood vessels, osteoclasts, bone marrow cells and osteoblasts, the last of which deposit bone on remnants of cartilage matrix. The sequential changes in chondrocyte behaviour are tightly regulated by both systemic factors and locally secreted factors, which act on receptors to effect intracellular signalling and activation of chondrocyte-selective transcription factors. Systemic factors that regulate the behaviour of chondrocytes in growth cartilage include growth hormone and thyroid hormone, and the local secreted factors include Indian hedgehog, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, fibroblast growth factors and components of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Transcription factors that play critical roles in regulation of chondrocyte gene expression under the control of these extracellular factors include Runx2, Sox9 and MEF2C. The invasion of cartilage matrix by the ossification front is dependent on its resorption by members of the matrix metalloproteinase family, as well as the presence of blood vessels and bone-resorbing osteoclast (Mackie et al.)

from WikiPathways source record: WP474
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
BSID:
198812

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