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glycine/serine biosynthesis

General Background Mammals can synthesize : GLY via at least three different pathways. The glycine produced can be used in : SER biosynthesis as shown in the reverse reaction of this pathway . It can also be used in the biosynthesis of other compounds such as tetrapyrroles and purines, see : PWY-5189 and : PWY-841. Along with serine, glycine is an important donor of one-carbon hydroxymethyl groups via the tetrahydrofolate pathways, as shown in pathways : PWY-2161 and : PWY-2201. The folates act as cofactors and ferry the one-carbon units between reactions. About This Pathway The serine hydroxymethyltransferases (SHMT) are pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes that generate one-carbon units using the hydroxymethyl group of the amino acid serine as a substrate . SHMT catalyzes the reversible conversion of : SER and : THF to : GLY and : METHYLENE-THF. SHMT activity and incorporation of the beta carbon of serine into DNA are increased during the S phase of the cell cycle and when cells are stimulated to proliferate . SHMT plays a key role in regulating DNA synthesis through the supply of folate which is a cofactor for dTMP biosynthesis . The human SHMT consists of two isozymes, mitochondrial : CPLX66-330 and cytosolic : CPLX66-329. It has been suggested that glycine synthesis from serine occurs in the mitochondria, while cytosolic SHMT catalyzes the conversion of glycine to serine. While the fact that mammalian cells lacking mitochondrial SHMT activity are auxotrophic for glycine seems to indicate some validity for this hypothesis, direct evidence is lacking .

from BIOCYC source record: HUMAN_GLYSYN-PWY
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
organism-specific biosystem
Homo sapiens

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