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serotonin degradation

General Background The neurotransmitter and neuromodulator |FRAME: SEROTONIN| has important roles in the mammalian central nervous system including learning, memory and development. Imbalance of |FRAME: SEROTONIN| levels is associated with a variety of neurological disorders. Although the central nervous system has been the focus of |FRAME: SEROTONIN| research, only a small percentage of total body |FRAME: SEROTONIN| is produced and stored in serotonergic neurons of the central nervous system, where it is released into synapses. Approximately 95% of the |FRAME: SEROTONIN| in humans originates in the enteric nervous system, where it is produced and stored in enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Upon release it is taken up by platelets and stored in dense granules (in |CITS: [17877637]| and |CITS: [18651566]|). |FRAME: SEROTONIN| in peripheral tissues has important roles in the regulation of many physiological processes. Additionally, a serotonergic system in mammalian skin for the biosyntheis and metabolism of |FRAME: SEROTONIN|, |FRAME: N-ACETYL-SEROTONIN| and |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| has also been studied |CITS: [12899690] [14678785]|. Reviewed in |CITS: [18651566] [19264685]| and |CITS: [15677341]|. See pathway |FRAME: PWY-6030|. About This Pathway |FRAME: CPLX-7885| is primarily responsible for the oxidative deamination of |FRAME: SEROTONIN| to |FRAME: 5-HYDROXYINDOLE_ACETALDEHYDE| although |FRAME: CPLX-33| can function in its absence (in |CITS: [16537538]|). Circulating |FRAME: SEROTONIN| is mostly derived from peripheral tissues and is primarily metabolized in the liver to |FRAME: 5-HYDROXYINDOLE_ACETATE|, which is excreted in the urine. The minor metabolite |FRAME: CPD-11671| is more hydrophobic and is first sulfated, or glucuronidated before urinary excretion (|CITS: [7752817]| and in |CITS: [12231396]|). Low levels of |FRAME: CPD-11665|, produced by phenol (aryl) sulfotransferase (EC, have been identified in both the central and enteric nervous systems |CITS: [17877637] [3459671]| and isoforms SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C#2 have been shown to sulfate |FRAME: SEROTONIN| |CITS: [17908235]|. |FRAME: CPD-11670| is a condensation product of |FRAME: 5-HYDROXYINDOLE_ACETALDEHYDE| and |FRAME: CYS| that has been shown to form in the central and enteric nervous systems, but does not accumulate presumably due to the action of |FRAME: CPLX66-81| (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, EC |CITS: [16537538]|. In addition, 7-hydroxylated serotonin may be formed as a result of cellular oxidative stress and subsequently sulfated |CITS: [17908235]| (not shown).

from BIOCYC source record: META_PWY-6313
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
conserved biosystem

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