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atrazine degradation I (aerobic)

The |FRAME: s-Triazines| herbicide |FRAME: ATRAZINE| is a widely used that is persistant in the soil. It is prone to ground and surface water contamination. Some countries such as Germany, Italy, Norway and Sweden have banned its use because of its widespread presence in water |CITS: [16162227]|. A range of soil bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains can degrade atrazine, utilizing it as a nitrogen and carbon source. In this aerobic pathway, which has been studied in most detail in the bacterium |FRAME: TAX-47660|, atrazine is catabolized in three enzymatic steps to |FRAME: CYANURIC-ACID|, which can be further metabolized by ring cleavage to carbon dioxide and ammonia. The first enzyme, encoded by either |FRAME: G-124| or |FRAME: G-10313|, converts |FRAME: ATRAZINE| to |FRAME: HYDROXYATRAZINE|. Two additional hydrolases, encoded by the |FRAME: G-114| and |FRAME: G-115| genes, continue the process by removing the |FRAME: ETHANAMINE| and |FRAME: ISOPROPYLAMINE| groups |CITS: [7574646][8759853][9055410][9422605][9537398][10877767] [12694918][12615111]|. While some organisms possess all of the required enzymes, other communities degrade atrazine by a community-appraoch, where different organisms have some of the enzymes, and the intermediates in the pathway are passed between the organisms |CITS: [16329946]|. The genes encoding the pathway shown here were named either atz or trz, depending on the organism. The |FRAME:MONOMER-13542|, encoded by the |FRAME: G-10313| gene, is found in Gram-positive bacteria, and has a very wide substrate specificity |CITS: [16885454]|. The corresponding protein in Gram-negative bacteria is |FRAME: CPLX-2201|, encoded by the |FRAME: G-124| gene, which has a much narrower specificity - it catalyzes the hydrolytic displacement of only chloride and fluoride substituents from the s-triazine ring |CITS: [11010866]|. For more information, see |FRAME: PWY-5724|.

from BIOCYC source record: META_P141-PWY
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
conserved biosystem

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