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L-arginine degradation V (arginine deiminase pathway)

The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway is widely distributed among prokaryotic organisms. It has been detected in many organisms, including lactic bacteria |CITS: [10359490][10733246][15939575]|, Bacilii |CITS: [4436643][690081]|, |FRAME:TAX-286| species |CITS: [6438064][3129535]|, |FRAME:TAX-642| species |CITS: [6303241]|, Clostridia |CITS: [12999794][5335895]|, |FRAME:TAX-2093| secies |CITS: [5911610][126306][6438064][3806049]|, Sterptococci |CITS: [2843090][12406748]|, |FRAME:TAX-2132| secies |CITS: [Igwebe78]|, Spirochaetes |CITS: [977548]|, and cyanobacteria |CITS: [100070]|. It was also demonstrated in the halophylic archaeon |FRAME: TAX-2242| |CITS: [5903088]|. In addition, the pathway is also present in some primitive eukaryotic protozoans, including |FRAME: TAX-5722| |CITS: [6312311]|, |FRAME: TAX-56690| |CITS: [7866382]|, |FRAME: TAX-28002| |CITS: [12706792]|, and |FRAME: TAX-5741|, in which it plays a significant role in energy metabolism, providing a route for anaerobic substrate level phosphorylation |CITS: [2228433]|. The enzymes of this pathway have also been found in |FRAME: ORG-5993|, and it was shown that |FRAME:TAX-3701| chloroplasts can metabolize arginine and citrulline all the way to CO2. However, since |FRAME:TAX-3701| rarely encounters exogenous arginine or citrulline, it is assumed that in this organism this pathway may serve as a means for extracting nitrogen from endogenous sources |CITS: [8278506]|. Organisms that employ this pathway use the enzyme arginine deiminase to convert arginine to |FRAME: L-CITRULLINE| and |FRAME: AMMONIA|. Citrulline is degraded further (see |FRAME: CITRULLINE-DEG-PWY|), forming ATP, |FRAME: CARBON-DIOXIDE|, and |FRAME: L-ORNITHINE| |CITS: [8759859] [10733246]|. The arginine deiminase pathway provides the organisms with energy, carbon, and nitrogen. In addition, it has been suggested that the pathway can also protect some bacteria from acidic conditions, by the production of ammonia. Indeed, the arginine deiminase system can function at very low pH. For example, in |FRAME: TAX-2133| FA-1, the pH at which arginolysis was reduced to 10% of the maximum was between 2.1 and 2.6, or more than 1 full pH unit below the minimum for glycolysis (pH 3.7), and more than 2 units below the minimum for growth in complex medium (pH 4.7) |CITS: [2843090]|. The arginine deiminase pathway is thought to be a critical factor in oral biofilm pH homeostasis that may inhibit the emergence of a cariogenic flora |CITS: [11094270]|. The genes encoding the enzymes of this pathway are often found in an operon, which may also include the arcD gene, encoding a membrane-bound arginine-ornithine antiporter, as well as a putative aminopeptidase-encoding arcT gene and a regulator-encoding arcR gene |CITS: [1311296][9696763][12450828]|.

from BIOCYC source record: META_ARGDEGRAD-PWY
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
conserved biosystem

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