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CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I

General Background Phospholipids are important membrane components. Most of the phospholipids belong to the category of phosphoglycerides. The simplest phosphoglycerides, which are known as phosphatidates, are composed of a glycerol molecule attached to two fatty acids and one phosphate group. The carboxyl group of each fatty acid is esterified to the hydroxyl groups on carbon-1 and carbon-2 of the glycerol molecule, while the phosphate group is attached to carbon-3 by an ester link. Phosphatidates are precursors for many phosphoglycerides found in animals, plants and yeast, including |FRAME: Phosphatidylinositols|, |FRAME: L-1-PHOSPHATIDYL-SERINE|, |FRAME: L-1-PHOSPHATIDYL-ETHANOLAMINE|, and |FRAME: CARDIOLIPIN|. As part of the synthesis of phosphoglycerides, either the phosphatidate or the modifying compound need to be activated by |FRAME:CTP|. In some cases, the modifying compound is activated, as in the case of |FRAME: CHOLINE| and |FRAME: ETHANOL-AMINE|, which form |FRAME: CDP-CHOLINE| and |FRAME: CDP-ETHANOLAMINE|, respectively. However, in the case of other compounds, such as |FRAME: SER| and |FRAME: MYO-INOSITOL|, the phosphatidate is activated first, forming |FRAME: CDPDIACYLGLYCEROL|, which then reacts with the modifying compound to form the phosphoglyceride. About This Pathway This pathway describes the biosynthesis of |FRAME: CDPDIACYLGLYCEROL| in eukaryotes and some Gram-negative bacteria (primarily the |FRAME: TAX-1236|). In this pathway the production of the intermediate |FRAME: ACYL-SN-GLYCEROL-3P| is catalyzed by the membrane-bound enzyme |FRAME: GLYCEROL-3-P-ACYLTRANSFER-MONOMER|. The bacterial enzyme, encoded by |FRAME: EG10740|, can utilize either |FRAME: ACYL-ACP| or |FRAME: Long-Chain-Acyl-CoAs| thioesters as the acyl donors, while the eukaryotic enzymes can only accept the acyl-CoA thiesters. The addition of the second acyl moiety is catalyzed by |FRAME: 1-ACYLGLYCEROL-3-P-ACYLTRANSFER-MONOMER|. The bacterial enzyme, which is universally expressed in all bacteria, is encoded by |FRAME: EG11377|. As in the case of PlsB, the bacterial enzyme can utilize either a fatty acyl-[acp] or an acyl-CoA thioester as the acyl donor, while the eukaryotic enzyme can only accept acyl-CoA thioesters. A pathway that describes the usage of fatty acyl-[acp] donors can be found at |FRAME: PWY0-1319|. It should be noted that most bacteria utilize a different route for the synthesis of |FRAME: ACYL-SN-GLYCEROL-3P|, as described in |FRAME: PWY-5981|. More information can be found in |FRAME: PHOSLIPSYN2-PWY|.

from BIOCYC source record: META_PWY-5667
Type: pathway
Taxonomic scope
conserved biosystem

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