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7TIM: Structure Of The Triosephosphate Isomerase- Phosphoglycolohydroxamate Complex: An Analogue Of The Intermediate On The Reaction Pathway
Structure of the triosephosphate isomerase-phosphoglycolohydroxamate complex: an analogue of the intermediate on the reaction pathway
Biochemistry (1991) 30 p.5821-5826
The glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyzes the interconversion of the three-carbon sugars dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) at a rate limited by the diffusion of substrate to the enzyme. We have solved the three-dimensional structure of TIM complexed with a reactive intermediate analogue, phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH), at 1.9-A resolution and have refined the structure to an R-factor of 18%. Analysis of the refined structure reveals the geometry of the active-site residues and the interactions they make with the inhibitor and, by analogy, the substrates. The structure is consistent with an acid-base mechanism in which the carboxylate of Glu-165 abstracts a proton from carbon while His-95 donates a proton to oxygen to form an enediol (or enediolate) intermediate. The conformation of the bound substrate stereoelectronically favors proton transfer from substrate carbon to the syn orbital of Glu-165. The crystal structure suggests that His-95 is neutral rather than cationic in the ground state and therefore would have to function as an imidazole acid instead of the usual imidazolium. Lys-12 is oriented so as to polarize the substrate oxygens by hydrogen bonding and/or electrostatic interaction, providing stabilization for the charged transition state. Asn-10 may play a similar role.