5GM0: Tl-gal With Lactose

Toxascaris leonina galectin (Tl-gal) is a galectin-9 homologue protein isolated from an adult worm of the canine gastrointestinal nematode parasite, and Tl-gal-vaccinated challenge can inhibit inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease-induced mice. We determined the first X-ray structures of full-length Tl-gal complexes with carbohydrates (lactose, N-acetyllactosamine, lacto-N-tetraose, sialyllactose, and glucose). Bonds were formed on concave surfaces of both carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in Tl-gal. All binding sites were found in the HXXXR and WGXEER motifs. Charged Arg61/Arg196 and Glu80/Glu215 on the conserved motif of Tl-gal N-terminal CRD and C-terminal CRD are critical amino acids for recognizing carbohydrate binding, and the residues can affect protein folding and structure. The polar amino acids His, Asn, and Trp are also important residues for the interaction with carbohydrates through hydrogen bonding. Hemagglutination activities of Tl-gal were inhibited by interactions with carbohydrates and mutations. We found that the mutation of Tl-gal (E80A/E215A) at the carbohydrate binding region induced protein aggregation and could be caused in many diseases. The short linker region between the N-terminal and C-terminal CRDs of Tl-gal was very stable against proteolysis and maintained its biological activity. This structural information is expected to elucidate the carbohydrate recognition mechanism of Tl-gal and improve our understanding of anti-inflammatory mediators and modulators of immune response.
PDB ID: 5GM0Download
MMDB ID: 144695
PDB Deposition Date: 2016/7/12
Updated in MMDB: 2016/12
Experimental Method:
x-ray diffraction
Resolution: 1.7  Å
Source Organism:
Similar Structures:
Biological Unit for 5GM0: monomeric; determined by author and by software (PISA)
Molecular Components in 5GM0
Label Count Molecule
Protein (1 molecule)
Molecule annotation
Chemicals (2 molecules)
* Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information.

Citing MMDB