National Center for
5EQR: Crystal structure of a genotype 1a/3a chimeric HCV NS3/4A protease in complex with danoprevir
Molecular and Dynamic Mechanism Underlying Drug Resistance in Genotype 3 Hepatitis C NS3/4A Protease
J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2016) 138 p.11850-11859» All references (2)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), affecting an estimated 150 million people worldwide, is the leading cause of viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is genetically diverse with six genotypes (GTs) and multiple subtypes of different global distribution and prevalence. Recent development of direct-acting antivirals against HCV including NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs) has greatly improved treatment outcomes for GT-1. However, all current PIs exhibit significantly lower potency against GT-3. Lack of structural data on GT-3 protease has limited our ability to understand PI failure in GT-3. In this study the molecular basis for reduced potency of current inhibitors against GT-3 NS3/4A protease is elucidated with structure determination, molecular dynamics simulations and inhibition assays. A chimeric GT-1a3a NS3/4A protease amenable to crystallization was engineered to recapitulate decreased sensitivity of GT-3 protease to PIs. High-resolution crystal structures of this GT-1a3a bound to 3 PIs, asunaprevir, danoprevir and vaniprevir, had only subtle differences relative to GT-1 despite orders of magnitude loss in affinity. In contrast, hydrogen-bonding interactions within and with the protease active site and dynamic fluctuations of the PIs were drastically altered. The correlation between loss of intermolecular dynamics and inhibitor potency suggests a mechanism where polymorphisms between genotypes (or selected mutations) in the drug target confer resistance through altering the intermolecular dynamics of the protein-inhibitor complex.