National Center for
5C1V: Crystal Structure Analysis Of Catalytic Subunit Of Human Calcineurin
PLoS ONE (2015) 10 p.E0134569
A limited repertoire of PPP family of serine/threonine phosphatases with a highly conserved catalytic domain acts on thousands of protein targets to orchestrate myriad central biological roles. A major structural reorganization of human calcineurin, a ubiquitous Ser/Thr PPP regulated by calcium and calmodulin and targeted by immunosuppressant drugs cyclosporin A and FK506, is unveiled here. The new conformation involves trans- to cis-isomerization of proline in the SAPNY sequence, highly conserved across PPPs, and remodels the main regulatory site where NFATc transcription factors bind. Transitions between cis- and trans-conformations may involve peptidyl prolyl isomerases such as cyclophilin A and FKBP12, which are known to physically interact with and modulate calcineurin even in the absence of immunosuppressant drugs. Alternative conformations in PPPs provide a new perspective on interactions with substrates and other protein partners and may foster development of more specific inhibitors as drug candidates.