5APE: Hen Egg White Lysozyme reference dataset odd frames

Citation:
Abstract
Whether long-range quantum coherent states could exist in biological systems, and beyond low-temperature regimes where quantum physics is known to be applicable, has been the subject to debate for decades. It was proposed by Frohlich that vibrational modes within protein molecules can order and condense into a lowest-frequency vibrational mode in a process similar to Bose-Einstein condensation, and thus that macroscopic coherence could potentially be observed in biological systems. Despite the prediction of these so-called Frohlich condensates almost five decades ago, experimental evidence thereof has been lacking. Here, we present the first experimental observation of Frohlich condensation in a protein structure. To that end, and to overcome the challenges associated with probing low-frequency molecular vibrations in proteins (which has hampered understanding of their role in proteins' function), we combined terahertz techniques with a highly sensitive X-ray crystallographic method to visualize low-frequency vibrational modes in the protein structure of hen-egg white lysozyme. We found that 0.4 THz electromagnetic radiation induces non-thermal changes in electron density. In particular, we observed a local increase of electron density in a long alpha-helix motif consistent with a subtle longitudinal compression of the helix. These observed electron density changes occur at a low absorption rate indicating that thermalization of terahertz photons happens on a micro- to milli-second time scale, which is much slower than the expected nanosecond time scale due to damping of delocalized low frequency vibrations. Our analyses show that the micro- to milli-second lifetime of the vibration can only be explained by Frohlich condensation, a phenomenon predicted almost half a century ago, yet never experimentally confirmed.
PDB ID: 5APEDownload
MMDB ID: 135419
PDB Deposition Date: 2015/9/15
Updated in MMDB: 2018/03
Experimental Method:
x-ray diffraction
Resolution: 1.7  Å
Source Organism:
Similar Structures:
Biological Unit for 5APE: monomeric; determined by author and by software (PISA)
Molecular Components in 5APE
Label Count Molecule
Protein (1 molecule)
1
Lysozyme C(Gene symbol: LYZ)
Molecule annotation
Chemical (1 molecule)
1
1
* Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information.

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