National Center for
4QDC: Crystal structure of 3-ketosteroid-9-alpha-hydroxylase 5 (KshA5) from R. rhodochrous in complex with FE2/S2 (INORGANIC) CLUSTER
J. Biol. Chem. (2014) 289 p.25523-25536
KshA is the oxygenase component of 3-ketosteroid 9alpha-hydroxylase, a Rieske oxygenase involved in the bacterial degradation of steroids. Consistent with its role in bile acid catabolism, KshA1 from Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM43269 had the highest apparent specificity (kcat/Km) for steroids with an isopropyl side chain at C17, such as 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorcholesta-1,4-diene-22-oate (1,4-BNC). By contrast, the KshA5 homolog had the highest apparent specificity for substrates with no C17 side chain (kcat/Km >10(5) s(-1) M(-1) for 4-estrendione, 5alpha-androstandione, and testosterone). Unexpectedly, substrates such as 4-androstene-3,17-dione (ADD) and 4-BNC displayed strong substrate inhibition (Ki S approximately 100 muM). By comparison, the cholesterol-degrading KshAMtb from Mycobacterium tuberculosis had the highest specificity for CoA-thioesterified substrates. These specificities are consistent with differences in the catabolism of cholesterol and bile acids, respectively, in actinobacteria. X-ray crystallographic structures of the KshAMtb.ADD, KshA1.1,4-BNC-CoA, KshA5.ADD, and KshA5.1,4-BNC-CoA complexes revealed that the enzymes have very similar steroid-binding pockets with the substrate's C17 oriented toward the active site opening. Comparisons suggest Tyr-245 and Phe-297 are determinants of KshA1 specificity. All enzymes have a flexible 16-residue "mouth loop," which in some structures completely occluded the substrate-binding pocket from the bulk solvent. Remarkably, the catalytic iron and alpha-helices harboring its ligands were displaced up to 4.4 A in the KshA5.substrate complexes as compared with substrate-free KshA, suggesting that Rieske oxygenases may have a dynamic nature similar to cytochrome P450.