National Center for
4EP6: Crystal Structure Of The Xpla Heme Domain In Complex With Imidazole And Peg
Unusual Spectroscopic and Ligand Binding Properties of the Cytochrome P450-Flavodoxin Fusion Enzyme XplA
J. Biol. Chem. (2012) 287 p.19699-19714
The Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain 11Y XplA enzyme is an unusual cytochrome P450-flavodoxin fusion enzyme that catalyzes reductive denitration of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX). We show by light scattering that XplA is a monomeric enzyme. XplA has high affinity for imidazole (K(d) = 1.6 mum), explaining previous reports of a red-shifted XplA Soret band in pure enzyme. The true Soret maximum of XplA is at 417 nm. Similarly, unusually weak XplA flavodoxin FMN binding (K(d) = 1.09 mum) necessitates its purification in the presence of the cofactor to produce hallmark flavin contributions absent in previously reported spectra. Structural and ligand-binding data reveal a constricted active site able to accommodate RDX and small inhibitory ligands (e.g. 4-phenylimidazole and morpholine) while discriminating against larger azole drugs. The crystal structure also identifies a high affinity imidazole binding site, consistent with its low K(d), and shows active site penetration by PEG, perhaps indicative of an evolutionary lipid-metabolizing function for XplA. EPR studies indicate heterogeneity in binding mode for RDX and other ligands. The substrate analog trinitrobenzene does not induce a substrate-like type I optical shift but creates a unique low spin EPR spectrum due to influence on structure around the distal water heme ligand. The substrate-free heme iron potential (-268 mV versus NHE) is positive for a low spin P450, and the elevated potential of the FMN semiquinone/hydroquinone couple (-172 mV) is also an adaptation that may reflect (along with the absence of a key Thr/Ser residue conserved in oxygen-activating P450s) the evolution of XplA as a specialized RDX reductase catalyst.