National Center for
4E3M: Crystal Structure Of Ampc Beta-Lactamase In Complex With A 2-Chloro-4- Tetrazolyl Benzene Sulfonamide Boronic Acid Inhibitor
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2012) 109 p.17448-17453
Fragment-based design was used to guide derivatization of a lead series of beta-lactamase inhibitors that had heretofore resisted optimization for in vivo activity. X-ray structures of fragments overlaid with the lead suggested new, unanticipated functionality and points of attachment. Synthesis of three derivatives improved affinity over 20-fold and improved efficacy in cell culture. Crystal structures were consistent with the fragment-based design, enabling further optimization to a K(i) of 50 pM, a 500-fold improvement that required the synthesis of only six derivatives. One of these, compound 5, was tested in mice. Whereas cefotaxime alone failed to cure mice infected with beta-lactamase-expressing Escherichia coli, 65% were cleared of infection when treated with a cefotaxime:5 combination. Fragment complexes offer a path around design hurdles, even for advanced molecules; the series described here may provide leads to overcome beta-lactamase-based resistance, a key clinical challenge.