National Center for
4DO6: Pharmacological chaperones for human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2012) 109 p.17400-17405
Schindler/Kanzaki disease is an inherited metabolic disease with no current treatment options. This neurologic disease results from a defect in the lysosomal alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGAL) enzyme. In this report, we show evidence that the iminosugar DGJNAc can inhibit, stabilize, and chaperone human alpha-NAGAL both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that a related iminosugar DGJ (currently in phase III clinical trials for another metabolic disorder, Fabry disease) can also chaperone human alpha-NAGAL in Schindler/Kanzaki disease. The 1.4- and 1.5-A crystal structures of human alpha-NAGAL complexes reveal the different binding modes of iminosugars compared with glycosides. We show how differences in two functional groups result in >9 kcal/mol of additional binding energy and explain the molecular interactions responsible for the unexpectedly high affinity of the pharmacological chaperones. These results open two avenues for treatment of Schindler/Kanzaki disease and elucidate the atomic basis for pharmacological chaperoning in the entire family of lysosomal storage diseases.