4D4E: Crystal Structure Of Computationally Designed Armadillo Repeat Proteins For Modular Peptide Recognition

Armadillo repeat proteins (ArmRPs) recognize their target peptide in extended conformation and bind, in a first approximation, two residues per repeat. Thus, they may form the basis for building a modular system, in which each repeat is complementary to a piece of the target peptide. Accordingly, preselected repeats could be assembled into specific binding proteins on demand and thereby avoid the traditional generation of every new binding molecule by an independent selection from a library. Stacked armadillo repeats, each consisting of 42 aa arranged in three alpha-helices, build an elongated superhelical structure. Here, we analyzed the curvature variations in natural ArmRPs and identified a repeat pair from yeast importin-alpha as having the optimal curvature geometry that is complementary to a peptide over its whole length. We employed a symmetric in silico design to obtain a uniform sequence for a stackable repeat while maintaining the desired curvature geometry. Computationally designed ArmRPs (dArmRPs) had to be stabilized by mutations to remove regions of higher flexibility, which were identified by molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Using an N-capping repeat from the consensus-design approach, two different crystal structures of dArmRP were determined. Although the experimental structures of dArmRP deviated from the designed curvature, the insertion of the most conserved binding pockets of natural ArmRPs onto the surface of dArmRPs resulted in binders against the expected peptide with low nanomolar affinities, similar to the binders from the consensus-design series.
PDB ID: 4D4EDownload
MMDB ID: 135298
PDB Deposition Date: 2014/10/28
Updated in MMDB: 2016/11
Experimental Method:
x-ray diffraction
Resolution: 2  Å
Source Organism:
Similar Structures:
Biological Unit for 4D4E: monomeric; determined by author and by software (PISA)
Molecular Components in 4D4E
Label Count Molecule
Protein (1 molecule)
Armadillo Repeat Protein Arm00016
Molecule annotation
Chemicals (2 molecules)
* Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information.

Citing MMDB