National Center for
4CXV: Structure of bifunctional endonuclease (AtBFN2) in complex with phosphate
Structural insights of the ssDNA binding site in the multifunctional endonuclease AtBFN2 from Arabidopsis thaliana
PLoS ONE (2014) 9 p.e105821
The multi S1/P1 nuclease AtBFN2 (EC 188.8.131.52) encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana At1g68290 gene is a glycoprotein that digests RNA, ssDNA, and dsDNA. AtBFN2 depends on three zinc ions for cleaving DNA and RNA at 3'-OH to yield 5'-nucleotides. In addition, AtBFN2's enzymatic activity is strongly glycan dependent. Plant Zn(2+)-dependent endonucleases present a unique fold, and belong to the Phospholipase C (PLC)/P1 nuclease superfamily. In this work, we present the first complete, ligand-free, AtBFN2 crystal structure, along with sulfate, phosphate and ssDNA co-crystal structures. With these, we were able to provide better insight into the glycan structure and possible enzymatic mechanism. In comparison with other nucleases, the AtBFN2/ligand-free and AtBFN2/PO4 models suggest a similar, previously proposed, catalytic mechanism. Our data also confirm that the phosphate and vanadate can inhibit the enzyme activity by occupying the active site. More importantly, the AtBFN2/A5T structure reveals a novel and conserved secondary binding site, which seems to be important for plant Zn(2+)-dependent endonucleases. Based on these findings, we propose a rational ssDNA binding model, in which the ssDNA wraps itself around the protein and the attached surface glycan, in turn, reinforces the binding complex.