National Center for
4ALT: X-ray Photoreduction of Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Cbm33
Structural and Electronic Snapshots during the Transition from a Cu(II) to Cu(I) Metal Center of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase by X-ray Photoreduction
J. Biol. Chem. (2014) 289 p.18782-18792» All references (1)
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a recently discovered class of enzymes that employ a copper-mediated, oxidative mechanism to cleave glycosidic bonds. The LPMO catalytic mechanism likely requires that molecular oxygen first binds to Cu(I), but the oxidation state in many reported LPMO structures is ambiguous, and the changes in the LPMO active site required to accommodate both oxidation states of copper have not been fully elucidated. Here, a diffraction data collection strategy minimizing the deposited x-ray dose was used to solve the crystal structure of a chitin-specific LPMO from Enterococcus faecalis (EfaCBM33A) in the Cu(II)-bound form. Subsequently, the crystalline protein was photoreduced in the x-ray beam, which revealed structural changes associated with the conversion from the initial Cu(II)-oxidized form with two coordinated water molecules, which adopts a trigonal bipyramidal geometry, to a reduced Cu(I) form in a T-shaped geometry with no coordinated water molecules. A comprehensive survey of Cu(II) and Cu(I) structures in the Cambridge Structural Database unambiguously shows that the geometries observed in the least and most reduced structures reflect binding of Cu(II) and Cu(I), respectively. Quantum mechanical calculations of the oxidized and reduced active sites reveal little change in the electronic structure of the active site measured by the active site partial charges. Together with a previous theoretical investigation of a fungal LPMO, this suggests significant functional plasticity in LPMO active sites. Overall, this study provides molecular snapshots along the reduction process to activate the LPMO catalytic machinery and provides a general method for solving LPMO structures in both copper oxidation states.