National Center for
3VF8: Crystal Structure of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Syk Catalytic Domain with Pyrazolylbenzimidazole Inhibitor 416
X-ray crystallographic structure-based design of selective thienopyrazole inhibitors for interleukin-2-inducible tyrosine kinase
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2012) 22 p.3296-3300
Beginning with a screening hit, unique thienopyrazole-indole inhibitors of Itk (interleukin-2-inducible tyrosine kinase) were designed, synthesized, and crystallized in the target kinase. Although initial compounds were highly active in Itk, they were not selective. Increasing the steric bulk around a tertiary alcohol at the 5-indole position dramatically improved selectivity toward Lyk and Syk, but not Txk. Substitutions at the 3- and 4-indole positions gave less active compounds that remained poorly selective. A difluoromethyl substitution at the 5-position of the thienopyrazole led to a highly potent and selective compound. Phenyl at this position reduced activity and selectivity while pushing the side-chains of Lys-391 and Asp-500 away from the binding pocket. Novel and selective thienopyrazole inhibitors of Itk were designed as a result of combining structure-based design and medicinal chemistry.