3U7S: HIV PR drug resistant patient's variant in complex with darunavir

Darunavir is the most recently approved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease (PR) inhibitor (PI) and is active against many HIV type 1 PR variants resistant to earlier-generation PIs. Darunavir shows a high genetic barrier to resistance development, and virus strains with lower sensitivity to darunavir have a higher number of PI resistance-associated mutations than viruses resistant to other PIs. In this work, we have enzymologically and structurally characterized a number of highly mutated clinically derived PRs with high levels of phenotypic resistance to darunavir. With 18 to 21 amino acid residue changes, the PR variants studied in this work are the most highly mutated HIV PR species ever studied by means of enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography. The recombinant proteins showed major defects in substrate binding, while the substrate turnover was less affected. Remarkably, the overall catalytic efficiency of the recombinant PRs (5% that of the wild-type enzyme) is still sufficient to support polyprotein processing and particle maturation in the corresponding viruses. The X-ray structures of drug-resistant PRs complexed with darunavir suggest that the impaired inhibitor binding could be explained by change in the PR-inhibitor hydrogen bond pattern in the P2' binding pocket due to a substantial shift of the aminophenyl moiety of the inhibitor. Recombinant virus phenotypic characterization, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray structural analysis thus help to explain darunavir resistance development in HIV-positive patients.
PDB ID: 3U7SDownload
MMDB ID: 96550
PDB Deposition Date: 2011/10/14
Updated in MMDB: 2018/03
Experimental Method:
x-ray diffraction
Resolution: 2.05  Å
Source Organism:
Similar Structures:
Biological Unit for 3U7S: dimeric; determined by author and by software (PISA)
Molecular Components in 3U7S
Label Count Molecule
Proteins (2 molecules)
POL Polyprotein
Molecule annotation
Chemicals (4 molecules)
* Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information.

Citing MMDB