National Center for
3M6F: CD11A I-domain complexed with 6-((5S,9R)-9-(4-CYANOPHENYL)-3-(3,5-DICHLOROPHENYL)-1-METHYL-2,4-DIOXO-1,3,7- TRIAZASPIRO[4.4]NON-7-YL)NICOTINIC ACID
Small molecule antagonist of leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1): structure-activity relationships leading to the identification of 6-((5S,9R)-9-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,3,7-triazaspiro[4.4]nonan-7-yl)nicotinic acid (BMS-688521)
J. Med. Chem. (2010) 53 p.3814-3830» All references (2)
Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), also known as CD11a/CD18 or alpha(L)beta(2), belongs to the beta(2) integrin subfamily and is constitutively expressed on all leukocytes. The major ligands of LFA-1 include three intercellular adhesion molecules 1, 2, and 3 (ICAM 1, 2, and 3). The interactions between LFA-1 and the ICAMs are critical for cell adhesion, and preclinical animal studies and clinical data from the humanized anti-LFA-1 antibody efalizumab have provided proof-of-concept for LFA-1 as an immunological target. This article will detail the structure-activity relationships (SAR) leading to a novel second generation series of highly potent spirocyclic hydantoin antagonists of LFA-1. With significantly enhanced in vitro and ex vivo potency relative to our first clinical compound (1), as well as demonstrated in vivo activity and an acceptable pharmacokinetic and safety profile, 6-((5S,9R)-9-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,3,7-triazaspiro-[4.4]nonan-7-yl)nicotinic acid (2e) was selected to advance into clinical trials.