3IMX: Crystal Structure of human glucokinase in complex with a synthetic activator

Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disease which afflicts nearly 200 million people worldwide and is expected to increase to near epidemic levels over the next 10-15 years. Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few reaching early clinical evaluation. A GK activator has the promise of potentially affecting both the beta-cells of the pancreas, by improving glucose sensitive insulin secretion, as well as the liver, by reducing uncontrolled glucose output and restoring post-prandial glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. Herein, we report our efforts on a sulfonamide chemotype with the aim to generate liver selective GK activators which culminated in the discovery of 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide (17c). This compound activated the GK enzyme (alphaK(a) = 39 nM) in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations and significantly reduced glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in normal mice.
PDB ID: 3IMXDownload
MMDB ID: 77215
PDB Deposition Date: 2009/8/11
Updated in MMDB: 2017/11
Experimental Method:
x-ray diffraction
Resolution: 2  Å
Source Organism:
Similar Structures:
Biological Unit for 3IMX: monomeric; determined by software (PISA)
Molecular Components in 3IMX
Label Count Molecule
Protein (1 molecule)
Molecule annotation
Chemicals (3 molecules)
* Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information.

Citing MMDB