National Center for
3IMX: Crystal Structure of human glucokinase in complex with a synthetic activator
Investigation of functionally liver selective glucokinase activators for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
J. Med. Chem. (2009) 52 p.6142-6152
Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disease which afflicts nearly 200 million people worldwide and is expected to increase to near epidemic levels over the next 10-15 years. Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few reaching early clinical evaluation. A GK activator has the promise of potentially affecting both the beta-cells of the pancreas, by improving glucose sensitive insulin secretion, as well as the liver, by reducing uncontrolled glucose output and restoring post-prandial glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. Herein, we report our efforts on a sulfonamide chemotype with the aim to generate liver selective GK activators which culminated in the discovery of 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide (17c). This compound activated the GK enzyme (alphaK(a) = 39 nM) in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations and significantly reduced glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in normal mice.
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