National Center for
2Y5F: FACTOR XA - CATION INHIBITOR COMPLEX
Molecular recognition at the active site of factor Xa: cation-pi interactions, stacking on planar peptide surfaces, and replacement of structural water
Chemistry (2012) 18 p.213-222
Factor Xa, a serine protease from the blood coagulation cascade, is an ideal enzyme for molecular recognition studies, as its active site is highly shape-persistent and features distinct, concave sub-pockets. We developed a family of non-peptidic, small-molecule inhibitors with a central tricyclic core orienting a neutral heterocyclic substituent into the S1 pocket and a quaternary ammonium ion into the aromatic box in the S4 pocket. The substituents were systematically varied to investigate cation-pi interactions in the S4 pocket, optimal heterocyclic stacking on the flat peptide walls lining the S1 pocket, and potential water replacements in both the S1 and the S4 pockets. Structure-activity relationships were established to reveal and quantify contributions to the binding free enthalpy, resulting from single-atom replacements or positional changes in the ligands. A series of high-affinity ligands with inhibitory constants down to K(i)=2 nM were obtained and their proposed binding geometries confirmed by X-ray co-crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes.