National Center for
2LIU: NMR structure of holo-ACPI domain from CurA module from Lyngbya majuscula
Characterization of molecular interactions between ACP and halogenase domains in the Curacin A polyketide synthase
ACS Chem. Biol. (2012) 7 p.378-386
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large multidomain proteins present in microorganisms that produce bioactive compounds. Curacin A is such a bioactive compound with potent anti-proliferative activity. During its biosynthesis the growing substrate is bound covalently to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) that is able to access catalytic sites of neighboring domains for chain elongation and modification. While ACP domains usually occur as monomers, the curacin A cluster codes for a triplet ACP (ACP(I)-ACP(II)-ACP(III)) within the CurA PKS module. We have determined the structure of the isolated holo-ACP(I) and show that the ACPs are independent of each other within this tridomain system. In addition, we have determined the structure of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-loaded holo-ACP(I), which is the substrate for the unique halogenase (Hal) domain embedded within the CurA module. We have identified the interaction surface of both proteins using mutagenesis and MALDI-based identification of product formation. Amino acids affecting product formation are located on helices II and III of ACP(I) and form a contiguous surface. Since the CurA Hal accepts substrate only when presented by one of the ACPs within the ACP(I)-ACP(II)-ACP(III) tridomain, our data provide insight into the specificity of the chlorination reaction.