2FD0: Hiv-1 Dis Kissing-Loop In Complex With Lividomycin

The kissing-loop complex that initiates dimerization of genomic RNA is crucial for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We showed that owing to its strong similitude with the bacterial ribosomal A site it can be targeted by aminoglycosides. Here, we present its crystal structure in complex with neamine, ribostamycin, neomycin and lividomycin. These structures explain the specificity for 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine (DOS) derivatives and for subtype A and subtype F kissing-loop complexes, and provide a strong basis for rational drug design. As a consequence of the different topologies of the kissing-loop complex and the A site, these aminoglycosides establish more contacts with HIV-1 RNA than with 16S RNA. Together with biochemical experiments, they showed that while rings I, II and III confer binding specificity, rings IV and V are important for affinity. Binding of neomycin, paromomycin and lividomycin strongly stabilized the kissing-loop complex by bridging the two HIV-1 RNA molecules. Furthermore, in situ footprinting showed that the dimerization initiation site (DIS) of HIV-1 genomic RNA could be targeted by these aminoglycosides in infected cells and virions, demonstrating its accessibility.
PDB ID: 2FD0Download
MMDB ID: 53148
PDB Deposition Date: 2005/12/13
Updated in MMDB: 2007/10
Experimental Method:
x-ray diffraction
Resolution: 1.8  Å
Source Organism:
Biological Unit for 2FD0: dimeric; determined by author

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