National Center for
2CRS: CARDIOTOXIN III FROM TAIWAN COBRA (NAJA NAJA ATRA) DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURE IN SOLUTION AND COMPARISON WITH SHORT NEUROTOXINS
Cardiotoxin III from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra). Determination of structure in solution and comparison with short neurotoxins
J. Mol. Biol. (1994) 235 p.1291-1301
The structure in solution of cardiotoxin III, a membrane toxin purified from the venom of the Taiwan cobra, Naja naja atra, is reported. Sequence-specific assignment of 1H-NMR lines was completed and the NMR data show the presence of a triple and a double-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. Many NOE cross peaks identified in NOESY spectra were applied as distance constraints based on a hybrid distance geometry/dynamical simulated annealing technique; 20 structures were found within a single family. The average value of atomic RMS differences between the 20 structures and their geometric mean is 0.087 nm for the backbone atoms and 0.152 nm for all heavy atoms; they are 0.055 nm and 0.12 nm, respectively for the segments of secondary structure. In these selected structures the backbone of the polypeptide chain folds such that five strands emerge from a globular head. Three major loops link these strands to form a double and a triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. Comparison of the structures of the toxin in solution with the X-ray crystal structure of its homologous protein, cardiotoxin V4II from Naja mossambica mossambica, showed good agreement between the structures except at segments of the turns. As the functions of short neurotoxins and cardiotoxins are distinct, despite their similar secondary structural patterns and tertiary folding, a comparative analysis has been carried out between cardiotoxin III and short neurotoxins of known structures. We discuss their structural features in order to clarify relationships between their structure and function.