2C3Q: Human Glutathione-S-Transferase T1-1 W234r Mutant, Complex With S-Hexylglutathione

The crystal structures of wild-type human theta class glutathione-S-transferase (GST) T1-1 and its W234R mutant, where Trp234 was replaced by Arg, were solved both in the presence and absence of S-hexyl-glutathione. The W234R mutant was of interest due to its previously observed enhanced catalytic activity compared to the wild-type enzyme. GST T1-1 from rat and mouse naturally contain Arg in position 234, with correspondingly high catalytic efficiency. The overall structure of GST T1-1 is similar to that of GST T2-2, as expected from their 53% sequence identity at the protein level. Wild-type GST T1-1 has the side-chain of Trp234 occupying a significant portion of the active site. This bulky residue prevents efficient binding of both glutathione and hydrophobic substrates through steric hindrance. The wild-type GST T1-1 crystal structure, obtained from co-crystallization experiments with glutathione and its derivatives, showed no electron density for the glutathione ligand. However, the structure of GST T1-1 mutant W234R showed clear electron density for S-hexyl-glutathione after co-crystallization. In contrast to Trp234 in the wild-type structure, the side-chain of Arg234 in the mutant does not occupy any part of the substrate-binding site. Instead, Arg234 is pointing in a different direction and, in addition, interacts with the carboxylate group of glutathione. These findings explain our earlier observation that the W234R mutant has a markedly improved catalytic activity with most substrates tested to date compared to the wild-type enzyme. GST T1-1 catalyzes detoxication reactions as well as reactions that result in toxic products, and our findings therefore suggest that humans have gained an evolutionary advantage by a partially disabled active site.
PDB ID: 2C3QDownload
MMDB ID: 36255
PDB Deposition Date: 2005/10/11
Updated in MMDB: 2005/12
Experimental Method:
x-ray diffraction
Resolution: 1.85  Å
Source Organism:
Similar Structures:
Biological Unit for 2C3Q: dimeric; determined by author and by software (PQS)
Molecular Components in 2C3Q
Label Count Molecule
Proteins (2 molecules)
Glutathione S-transferase Theta 1(Gene symbol: GSTT1)
Molecule annotation
Chemicals (17 molecules)
* Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information.

Citing MMDB