National Center for
2AX9: Crystal Structure Of The Androgen Receptor Ligand Binding Domain In Complex With R-3
J. Biol. Chem. (2005) 280 p.37747-37754
The mechanism by which the androgen receptor (AR) distinguishes between agonist and antagonist ligands is poorly understood. AR antagonists are currently used to treat prostate cancer. However, mutations commonly develop in patients that convert these compounds to agonists. Recently, our laboratory discovered selective androgen receptor modulators, which structurally resemble the nonsteroidal AR antagonists bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide but act as agonists for the androgen receptor in a tissue-selective manner. To investigate why subtle structural changes to both the ligand and the receptor (i.e. mutations) result in drastic changes in activity, we studied structure-activity relationships for nonsteroidal AR ligands through crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis, comparing bound conformations of R-bicalutamide, hydroxyflutamide, and two previously reported nonsteroidal androgens, S-1 and R-3. These studies provide the first crystallographic evidence of the mechanism by which nonsteroidal ligands interact with the wild type AR. We have shown that changes induced to the positions of Trp-741, Thr-877, and Met-895 allow for ligand accommodation within the AR binding pocket and that a water-mediated hydrogen bond to the backbone oxygen of Leu-873 and the ketone of hydroxyflutamide is present when bound to the T877A AR variant. Additionally, we demonstrated that R-bicalutamide stimulates transcriptional activation in AR harboring the M895T point mutation. As a whole, these studies provide critical new insight for receptor-based drug design of nonsteroidal AR agonists and antagonists.