National Center for
2A8G: Structure Of Avidin In Complex With The Ligand Deoxyguanosine
J. Mol. Biol. (2006) 357 p.263-274
Oxidative damage of DNA results in the formation of many products, including 8-oxodeoxyguanosine, which has been used as a marker to quantify DNA damage. Earlier studies have demonstrated that avidin, a protein prevalent in egg-white and which has high affinity for the vitamin biotin, binds to 8-oxodeoxyguanosine and related bases. In this study, we have determined crystal structures of avidin in complex with 8-oxodeoxyguanosine and 8-oxodeoxyadenosine. In each case, the base is observed to bind within the biotin-binding site of avidin. However, the mode of association between the bases and the protein varies and, unlike in the avidin:biotin complex, complete ordering of the protein in this region does not accompany binding. Fluorescence studies indicate that in solution the individual bases, and a range of oligonucleotides, bind to avidin with micromolar affinity. Only one of the modes of binding observed is consistent with recognition of oxidised purines when incorporated within a DNA oligomer, and from this structure a model is proposed for the selective binding of avidin to DNA containing oxidatively damaged deoxyguanosine. These studies illustrate the molecular basis by which avidin might act as a marker of DNA damage, although the low levels of binding observed are inconsistent with the recognition of oxidised purines forming a major physiological role for avidin.