National Center for
1VAF: Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Oxygenase Domain Complexed With The Inhibitor Ar-r17477
Structures of nitric oxide synthase isoforms complexed with the inhibitor AR-R17477 suggest a rational basis for specificity and inhibitor design
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2004) 101 p.5892-5897
The high level of amino acid conservation and structural similarity of the substrate-binding sites of the oxygenase domains of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms (eNOSoxy, iNOSoxy, nNOSoxy) make the interpretation of the structural basis of inhibitor isoform specificity a challenge, and provide few clues for the design of new selective compounds. Crystal structures of iNOSoxy and nNOSoxy complexed with the neuronal NOS-specific inhibitor AR-R17447 suggest that specificity is provided by the interaction of the chlorophenyl group with an isoform-unique substrate access channel residue (L337 in rat neuronal NOS, N115 in mouse inducible NOS). This is confirmed by biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants. Inhibitors combining guanidinium-like structural motifs with long chains specifically targeting this residue are good candidates for rational isoform-specific drug design. Based on this finding, modifications of AR-R17447 to improve the specificity for the human isoforms are suggested.