National Center for
1JXY: CRAMBIN MIXED SEQUENCE FORM AT 220 K. PROTEIN/WATER SUBSTATES
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2001) 98 p.11242-11247
Diverse biochemical and biophysical experiments indicate that all proteins, regardless of size or origin, undergo a dynamic transition near 200 K. The cause of this shift in dynamic behavior, termed a "glass transition," and its relation to protein function are important open questions. One explanation postulated for the transition is solidification of correlated motions in proteins below the transition. We verified this conjecture by showing that crambin's radius of gyration (Rg) remains constant below approximately 180 K. We show that both atom position and dynamics of protein and solvent are physically coupled, leading to a novel cooperative state. This glassy state is identified by negative slopes of the Debye-Waller (B) factor vs. temperature. It is composed of multisubstate side chains and solvent. Based on generalization of Adam-Gibbs' notion of a cooperatively rearranging region and decrease of the total entropy with temperature, we calculate the slope of the Debye-Waller factor. The results are in accord with experiment.